To this generation of the years 1830 and 1840, In France, Charles X succeeds his brother Louis XVII in 1824. His attempts to restore a royalty by divine right brings the reaction of the people in 1830 during the Three Glorious (July 27, 28 and 29, 1830). These result in the arrival on August 9 of Louis-Philippe I, nephew of Charles X who failing to establish the Republic, redefined the Monarchy.
- The revolutions  of 1830 which broke out in different European countries did not reach Germany properly speaking; new ideas gain ground. The Liberal Party is raising its head and will play an increasingly important role. He will be the best auxiliary of the Jews in their struggle for emancipation. […]
Elsewhere in Germany, emancipation will come later. In Prussia, it is announced in 1848, then a return in the 1850s. It was not until 1871 that the emancipation is real and complete in German territory. It was around this same time (1867) that emancipation was obtained in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Some progress still takes place in the present generation; Thus, in Hungary, Jews can, from 1839, become owners of buildings.
- Palestine  since the Bonaparte expedition was somewhat out of the international arena. She returned there, about 1830, with the aggravation of what is called at that time « the question of the East ». The hot spot is the Balkan Peninsula, where people seek to overcome Turkish domination to assert their national identity. Palestine is also projected into conflict because the opposing interests of the European powers and the Ottoman Empire are facing each other.
Born in Albania  in 1769, Mehemet Ali, a Muslim, made his first steps in Egypt and became the Pasha forcing the Turks to recognize him. In exchange, the Turks claim their help to fight the Greeks promising in exchange the possession of Egypt as hereditary as well as the domination over Syro-Palestine at least for the « duration of a life ».
- Excluding  the exactions caused by the revolt of the peasants (Ibrahim had introduced new taxes on the crops, the peasants in their revolts were also taken to the Jews), the reign of Ibrahim Pasha on Erets Israel brings great improvements. He managed to increase security on the roads by fighting Bedouin raids. We owe him the first attempts to sedentarize them in order to divert them from looting. It removes the ransom of travelers, and encourages agriculture, as well as crafts and commerce.
The Sephardic Jews  were able to rebuild the Ben Zakkai Synagogue, one of the four synagogues of Jerusalem’s Jewish Quarter. The Ashkenazim returned to Hourva, destroyed in 1720.
- On February 5, 1840 , a French national, Father Thomas, superior of the convent of the Franciscans of Damascus, mysteriously disappears with his servant. Soon the rumor spreads in the city that it is a « ritual murder ». The French consul in Damascus, Ratti-Menton, is influenced by these rumors and, with the consent of the Pasha governor of Damascus, takes the case in hand.
- Reported  in Europe by a press attentive to the question of the East, the case makes a great noise, especially in emancipated Jewish communities, because it marks the transfer to the East charges that were thought to be over in the West. Powerfully supported by the Rothschild family and a Jewish public that urges them to act as such for the defense of their fellow Jews, Sir Moses Montefiore, the former sheriff of London and, from France, the oriental scholar Salomon Munk and the lawyer Adolphe Cremieux went to Alexandria in the summer of 1840 to meet Muhammad Ali.
(extract of the psalm 138 associated to this generation, verse 3 )
- On the day that I called and You answered me; You made me great, [putting] strength into my soul.
- Sir Moses Montefiore’s  return trip (after being successful in Damascus then Constantinople) lasted four months. […] Celebrated for the success of his mission in many cities, he finishes, after several stops by arriving in London. He was first received by Lord Palmerston, and by Queen Victoria on March 24, 1841. Montefiore recounts: « I received a cordial welcome and basked the hand of the Sovereign ».
- « Firmano » presented  to the First Judge of Constantinople, at the head of which His Imperial Majesty wrote with his own hand the following words: « That be executed what is prescribed in this Firmano. «
(extract of the psalm 138 associated to this generation, verses 4 and 5 )
- O Lord, all the kings of the earth will acknowledge You, for they heard the words of Your mouth.
- And they will sing of the ways of the Lord, for great is the glory of the Lord.
- For a long time  For a long time there had been European consulates in Damascus and Beirut, cities of international trade. But Jerusalem, shut in its walls and its economic poverty seemed doomed to a very closed religious conservatism. The opening of a prestigious British consulate is one of the most important events of the last years of Egyptian rule. […] It was one of the visible signs of modernization during the Egyptian rule. After 1841 and the return of Palestine under the sultan (of the Ottoman Empire), the country does not return exactly to the state where it was ten years earlier. Modernization continues to slowly make its way. The appearance of new European consulates in Jerusalem is proof of this.
(extract of the psalm 138 associated to this generation, part of verse 6 )
- For the Lord is high
- « I (it is Montefiore who expresses himself) believe  that the poverty of Jews of Safed goes far beyond all that one can imagine in England or continental Europe. He distributes money ceaselessly from nine in the morning to six in the evening, and makes a point of including non-Jews in his cast. […] He is perfectly aware that these alms are a palliative that solves no problem of substance. The Jews to whom he speaks would all want to be able to earn their bread:
As a result  of this visit to this agricultural development, Montefiore is already aiming to request land transfers for the establishment of one hundred to two hundred villages, well before the initialization of Zionism. Even if this project does not succeed, it lays the foundation for the renewal of the Jewish presence in the land of Israel.
The will of Montefiore associated with other great Jewish philanthropists is in the long term and allows a progressive elimination of the misery of the Jews in the Holy Land and in other countries of the East. One of the results is the creation of the Israelite alliance that will soon work in this direction.
This solidarity will also play for the Jews of the Maghreb especially in Algeria become French in 1830 and for Tunisia in 1857 following the execution for blasphemy of the Jew Batto Sfez. As for the agricultural projects of Montefiore, they will eventually take shape in the land of Israel giving little independence to the Jews of the Holy Land.
(extract of the psalm 138 associated to this generation, verse 7 )
- If I walk in the midst of distress, You revive me; against the wrath of my enemies, You stretch forth Your hand and Your right hand saves me.
In 1840 ,the Jewish population of Jerusalem exceeds the Moslem population and the Christian population, since, according to the averages established from different censuses it is estimated that out of a total of 13000 inhabitants, 5000 are Jewish, 4650 are Muslims and 3350 are Christians, remember that the Muslim presence in Jerusalem was mainly due to the Christian and Jewish pilgrimages that ensured their sustenance either directly by the taxes collected or indirectly by the generated activity. To this generation the entire population of Jerusalem is concentrated in the walls, it will be necessary to wait for the next generation for Montefiore to create the first district outside the walls, this first Jewish quarter will be followed by other initiatives as well on the part of the Christians and the Muslims. So, before the birth of Zionism there is no significant presence, Muslim or not, in what today the Palestinians and the world denominate East Jerusalem.
The same year , Palestine has 70,000 inhabitants including 10,000 Jews. The world’s population  is then about 1.2 billion inhabitants, about 6 times less than the current world population (2013). So if we project, the current population of Palestine, if Zionism had not taken place, should include about 400,000 inhabitants of all religions, four times (five times if we restrict ourselves to the Muslim population) less than the current Israeli Arab population, without including the so-called Palestinian population of the West Bank, Gaza and the « diaspora ».
Following the Damascus affair , the Jewish press is developing both in the East and in the West, favoring the importation and circulation of new ideas. Boats bring new energies to the land of Israel, such as Samuel Salant, who will contribute greatly to the development of Jerusalem in the following decades:
- Samuel  Salant (1816-1909), coming from Poland-Russia, went directly to Jerusalem in 1841. Transiting through Turkey, he arrived in Eretz Israel on one of the very first steamboats set in use. His strong personality quickly makes him the most respected rabbi in the Ashkenazi community. Having studied at the famous yeshiva of Volozhin, animated by a disciple of the Vilna Gaon, he is also listened to and recognized by the Hasidim. He is the founder of many traditional educational institutions and also participates in the creation of Bikor Holim Hospital. He looks to the future and encourages Jews to develop new neighborhoods outside the walls. During his long life, he witnessed the remarkable development of the Ashkenazi community of Jerusalem, of which he is officially recognized chief rabbi. From 500 to his arrival in 1841, the Ashkenazi rose to 30,000 at his death, nearly fifty years later.
(extract of the psalm 138 associated to this generation, verse 8 )
- May the Lord agree with me; O Lord, may Your kindness be eternal. Do not let go of the works of Your hands.
 Renée Neher-Bernheim: « Jewish History of the Revolution to the State of Israel ». (French: « Histoire juive de la Révolution à l’État d’Israël ». (p. 162) )
 Renée Neher-Bernheim: « Jewish Life in the Holy Land, 1517-1918 ». (French: «La vie juive en Terre sainte, 1517-1918 ». (p. 167) )
 From: Renée Neher-Bernheim: « Jewish Life in the Holy Land, 1517-1918 ». (French: «La vie juive en Terre sainte, 1517-1918 ». (p. 167 à 170) )
 Renée Neher-Bernheim: « Jewish Life in the Holy Land, 1517-1918 ». (French: «La vie juive en Terre sainte, 1517-1918 ». (p. 172) )
 Simon Sebag Montefiore: « Jerusalem: Biography ». (French: « Jérusalem : Biographie ». (p. 398) )
 Renée Neher-Bernheim: « Jewish History of the Revolution to the State of Israel ». (French: « Histoire juive de la Révolution à l’État d’Israël ». (p. 373-374) )
 (Sous la direction de) Antoine Germa, Benjamin Lellouch et Evelyne Patlagean : « Les Juifs dans l’histoire ». Chapitre de Frédéric Abécassis et Jean François Faü : « Les Juifs dans le monde musulman, 1840-1945 ». (p.553).
 Riccardo Calimani: « The Jewish Wandering ». (French: « L’Errance juive ». (p.468) ).
 Riccardo Calimani: « The Jewish Wandering ». (French: « L’Errance juive ». (p.467, 468) ).
 Renée Neher-Bernheim: « Jewish life in the Holy Land ». (French: « La vie juive en Terre sainte ». (pp. 177 et 190) )
 Renée Neher-Bernheim: « Jewish life in the Holy Land ». (French: « La vie juive en Terre sainte, 1517-1918 ». (p. 180) )
 See Renée Neher-Bernheim: « Jewish life in the Holy Land ». (French: « La vie juive en Terre sainte, 1517-1918 ». (p. 181) )
 According to Renée Neher-Bernheim: « Jerusalem, three millennia of history ». (French: « Jérusalem, trois millénaires d’histoire ». (pp 142, 143) ).
 According to Renée Neher-Bernheim: « Jewish History of the Revolution to the State of Israel ». There are other estimates of the population in Palestine with big variations in numbers. However, whatever the estimate, the land of Palestine and Jerusalem in particular, were very sparsely populated in the mid-nineteenth century when Jewish immigration intensified.
(French: « Histoire juive de la Révolution à l’État d’Israël ». (p. 361) ).
 According to :http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_population_estimates
 (directed by) Antoine Germa, Benjamin Lellouch and Evelyne Patlagean: « The Jews in History ». Chapter of Frédéric Abécassis and Jean François Faü: « Jews in the Muslim World, 1840-1945 ». (French: « Les Juifs dans l’histoire ». Chapitre: « Les Juifs dans le monde musulman, 1840-1945 ». (p.554) )
 Renée Neher-Bernheim: « Jewish History of the Revolution to the State of Israel ». Chapter: « Towards a better life ». (French: « Histoire juive de la Révolution à l’État d’Israël ». Chapitre : « Vers un mieux-être ». (p. 364) )