On the military plan, France  achieved notable external successes until 1861. The bloody Crimean War pitted French, English and Turks against the Russians from 1854 to 1856 over the protection of the Holy Places.
On the other hand, the costly French interference in Mexico results in a complete failure. […] Threatened with a military intervention of the United States, Napoleon III repatriates his troops from 1866 to February 1867. […] More serious, the clumsy personal diplomacy of Napoleon III in the Austro-Prussian conflict of 1866 incites Bismarck, chancellor of the King of Prussia, to take advantage of the weakness of France to achieve by arms his masterpiece: the unification of Germany under the Prussian umbrella:
- It was  in this already tense climate (between France and Prussia following the previous conflict between Germany and Austria) that the case of the candidacy Hohenzollern (submitted by Prussia) to the throne of Spain. […] Bismarck skillfully exploited the violent reaction of the French foreign minister, Count of Gramont, evoking a new encirclement of France as in the time of Charles V. Faced with the emotion aroused in France, Prince Leopold (de Hohenzollern), in agreement with William I, withdrew his candidacy on July 12, 1870. […] As a result, the Emperor of Prussia in Paris informed William I that Napoleon III was awaiting from him a letter written by his hand, stating that Prussia had not wished to interfere with French interests. Bismarck. Informed by telegram of the events of the day (of July 13th, various diplomatic exchanges), received « carte blanche » from the king to possibly inform the press.
Bismarck confined himself to summarizing the contents of the « Ems telegram. » He gave the « Gazette d’Allemagne du Nord » the text thus amended, which contained the phrase likely to outrage the French opinion: « His majesty then refused to receive again the ambassador and made him say by the the aide-de-camp de service that his Majesty had nothing more to communicate to the ambassador « . What Bismarck expected of this abridged version of Ems’s telegram was not long in coming.
Thus, the warlike maneuvers Bismarck first against Austria with the victory of Sadowa and then against France who was led in 1870 result in the creation of the Second Reich under his banner. Prussia « doubles » Austria.
- War  is not in the Bismarckian instrument a necessary means. But it is a means like the others in the service of a policy; the war which must be known to begin if necessary, and which one must know how to terminate; war which is certainly not an end in itself. To complete the German unity around Prussia, it will be necessary to disarm the French opposition, in one way or another, and the strong matter appears as the most probable. However, the European context must be favorable, the preparation of the Prussian armies and the forces of the South must be completed and the circumstances compel the adversary to assume responsibility for the use of arms.
- In 1849, the future William I had declared: « Whoever wants to rule Germany must first conquer it. Bismarck could add fifteen years later (1864): « It is not by speeches and by majority votes that the great questions of the moment will be settled – that was the error of 1848-1849 – but by iron and blood. «
- In the message  he addressed to the people on January 7, 1861 on the occasion of his accession to the throne, William I defended the military power of Prussia because it is the « army » that « created the Greatness of Prussia. The army must be strong and respected to weigh a heavy weight in the political balance … « .
- Observant , if not impartial, observers, such as the Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt, the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, the historian Theodor Mommsen, or the Prussian physician Rudolf Virchow, the latter two prominent members of the liberal left-wing parliamentary opposition, saw clearly and with anguish that in the wake of Bismarck Germany was engaged in the worship of power, strength, material success, the superb national, contempt of the weak and foreigners.
Nietzsche, one of the few German intellectuals who does not adhere to anti-Semitism, has visionary thoughts:
- « I  never met a single German who loved Jews, » observed Nietzsche at the end of the 19th century, which was a brilliant exception to the rule. […]
- « What  Europe owes to the Jews? Many good, many bad, and especially this, which is the best and the worst, the great style in morality, the formidable majesty of infinite demands, infinite symbols, the sublime romanticism of moral problems, that is to say to say what is most seductive, more heady, more exquisite in these games of color and these seductions, the reflection of which today glowes the sky of our European civilization, a night sky and which may well be switch off. We who among the spectators are artists and philosophers, we feel towards the Jews of the recognition « .
The resurgence of Pan-Germanism in the early nineteenth century shows that the Carolingian pacification of German territories has not really been effective. As shown by the recourse to the ancient heroes of German mythology prior to the penetration of Christianity. Especially in the works of Wagner who is both a champion of pan-Germanism and racial anti-Semitism.
But at the corresponding generation, the Jews attracted by the apparent pacification of these lands established themselves there numerous. Then they suffered great evils, pushing many of them to take refuge in Polish lands, these being now mainly under Russian control.
- In the temporal organization  of this long nineteenth century, we can schematically distinguish a first time marked by the processes of emancipation, reform and adaptation of Judaism to modernity, then a second time articulated around a major break, those of the years 1870-1890, marked by a significant recomposition, which falls in several directions: emergence of racial anti-Semitism, demographic upheavals related to the arrival of the Jews of the East, emergence of a Jewish nationalism.
- The « Western » trajectory  of the Jews of Poland as well as of Russia stopped abruptly in March 1881, following the assassination of Alexander II. The nihilist bomb that killed the tsar revived the hatred of the West and lit up throughout the Russian empire a frightful anti-Jewish bang that immediately resulted in a series of pogroms.
In 1871 in Odessa , a pogrom (Russian word meaning « to completely destroy ») gave the signal of sudden violence, here and there, breaking any possibility of Judeo-Russian dialogue. […] On March 1, 1881, Tsar Alexander II was assassinated by terrorists of the organization « Narodnya Volija », « Will of the people »: in a few weeks began a veritable tide of anti-Jewish pogroms that made hundreds of deaths between 1881 and 1884, and whose Jewish history keeps the memory under the name of « Sufòt ba-Nèghev » (« southern storms »). The disorder began in southern Russia and Ukraine, before reaching further, Warsaw and Novgorod, for example. The Russian authorities interpreted this unleashing of hostility as a desire for popular vengeance: among those sentenced to death for the assassination of the Tsar, there was indeed a Jewess, Hessia Helfman. In reality, the disorders and the violence were driven from the ruling circles close to Alexander III, son and successor of the assassinated tsar. […] The Jews thus became a scapegoat for the difficulties of the regime. […] In 1882, the pogroms were particularly brutal and the government took a set of provisions known as the « May Laws » and presented as acts of goodwill aimed at reducing tensions between Jews and Russians. But, in reality, they were a real turn of sight towards the Jewish minority: reduction of the zone of forced residence, already narrow; restrictions on civil rights and work opportunities. […] Already marked, the poverty is aggravated by the very fast increase of the Jewish population, passed from 1 600 000 in 1820 to 4 000 000 in 1880. […]
- On Christmas Day 1881 , a pogrom broke out in Warsaw. At the time of Mass in the Holy Cross Church, we shout: « Fire! » The crowd, panicking, crashes to go out and 29 people die choked. It is quickly realized that it is a false alarm. The tragedy of these 29 dead is all the more poignant. Suddenly, it is rumored that two Jews, hidden in the church, would have shouted: « Fire! » This is the beginning of a very violent pogrom, which sweeps over the city for three days. There are no dead, but wounded, and more than 1500 houses sacked and made uninhabitable, as well as several synagogues.
- God, O Lord, the might of my salvation; You shall protect my head on the day of battle.
- O Lord, do not grant the desires of the wicked; do not let his thoughts succeed, for they are constantly haughty.
It is in « fiery coals« , » fire » and « war » that these two empires will disappear, during the First World War whose struggles illustrate the terms used.
(extract of the psalm 140 associated to this generation, verses 10 to 12 )
- The numbers of those who surround me, may the lies of their lips cover them.
- Let fiery coals descend on them; He will cast them into fire, in wars, so that they will not rise.
- A slanderer will not be established on earth; a man of violence, the evil will trap him with thrust upon thrust.
- The year 1882  marks a turning point in the history of Eretz Israel. That year two groups arrive, thirty young people. They are determined to work the land with modern methods, and to introduce into Palestine, where they have decided to live, an ideal both national and socialist. Their arrival is considered the beginning of a new type of alya. Hence the name become classic, but inaccurate « first alya ». Indeed (throughout the previous centuries and long ago) there have been almost uninterrupted alyot. The alya of 1882 should be the hundredth aliyah, or something similar. (it should rather be called) « The first agricultural alya ». It is their desire to be farmers on the ancestral land that gives these olim groups their specific character.
The failure of Montefiore in Jaffa, in the previous generation of the 1850s and 1860s, did not discourage the Jews in the hope of reestablishing an ambitious agriculture in the Holy Land. Considering that this failure is due to a lack of preparation, Charles Netter takes the initiative to create a school dedicated to agriculture. Netter’s project  was born in 1870 with the creation of the Mikveh Israel school near Jaffa, which made Montefiore wonder during his visit in 1875. Despite some unfortunate miseries, in 1879 the success was the appointment.
- I know that the Lord will perform the judgment of a poor man, the cause of the needy.
- But the righteous will thank Your name; the upright will sit before You.
 (under the scientific direction of) Theodore Zeldin: « History of the world, from 1789 to 1918 ». Chapter: « The end of the second empire ». (French: « Histoire du monde, de 1789 à 1918 ». Chapitre : « La fin du second empire ». (p. 322 à 327) )
 Henry Bogdan: « History of Germany ». (French: « Histoire de l’Allemagne ». (p. 307-308 et 310,311) )
 Joseph Rovan: « History of Germany ». (French: « Histoire de l’Allemagne ». (p. 549) )
 Henry Bogdan: « History of Germany ». (French: « Histoire de l’Allemagne ». (p. 301) )
 Henry Bogdan: « History of Germany ». (French: « Histoire de l’Allemagne ». (p. 299) )
 Michel Abitbol : « Histoire des Juifs. De la Genèse à nos jours ». (p. 378)
 Joseph Rovan: « History of Germany ». (French: « Histoire de l’Allemagne ». (p. 568) )
 Léon Poliakov : « Histoire de l’antisémitisme : 2 – l’âge de la science ». (p. 263)
 Friedrich Nietzsche « Beyond Good and Evil » (published in 1886). Quoted by Leon Poliakov: « History of antisemitism: 2 – the age of science ». (French: « Par delà le bien et le mal » (publié en 1886, paragraphe 250). Cité par Léon Poliakov : « Histoire de l’antisémitisme : 2 – l’âge de la science ». (p. 267) )
 (Sous la direction de) Antoine Germe, benjamin Lellouch et Evelyne Patlagean : « Les Juifs dans l’histoire ». Chapitre de Evelyne Oliel-Grausz : « Les Juifs d’Europe occidentale au XIXe siècle ». (p. 413).
 Michel Abitbol: « History of the Jews. From Genesis to our days. (French: « Histoire des Juifs. De la Genèse à nos jours ». (p. 383) )
 Riccardo Calimani; « Jewish wandering ». (French: « L’errance juive ». (p. 487 à 490) )
 Renée Neher-Bernheim: « Jewish History of the Revolution to the State of Israel ». (French: « Histoire juive de la Révolution à l’Etat d’Israël ». (p. 483) )
 Renée Neher-Bernheim: « Jewish Life in the Holy Land, 1517-1918 ». (French: « La vie juive en Terre sainte, 1517-1918». (p. 229) )
 See: Renee Neher-Bernheim: « Jewish Life in the Holy Land, 1517-1918 ». (French: « La vie juive en Terre sainte, 1517-1918». (p. 224 à 227) )