Following  the failure of the last crusade in 1270, Sultan Mamluk Baybars continues his offensive against the last Christian strongholds in the East. These places that the crusaders had conquered by causing many deaths, especially among Jewish communities, fall one after the other, many victims this time on the side of the Crusaders.
The Krak of Knights in Syria, the most powerful Frankish fortress, held by the Hospitallers and which had resisted all assaults for two centuries, only withstand two months the Mamelukes. The fortress goes to 1271. In 1272, English arrived in Acre, supported by ten thousand Mongols. Not getting any convincing results, the British go back to the sea.
Baybars dies in 1277. His son succeeds him for two years without brilliance, in 1279, Kalaoun becomes the new Mamluk Sultan. After successfully pacifying his empire and containing the Mongol and Armenian threats, Kalaoun dismantles new Frankish strongholds. After other strongholds, it is Tripoli (Antioch) that falls in 1288. It begins the preparations for the conquest of Acre, the last stronghold of the Crusaders in the East in 1290 but dies the same year. Acre will fall in 1291 putting a definitive end to the Frankish presence in the Holy Land.
- In Jewish history  a new period opened with what we have unfortunately called – significant translation error – the « Closing of the Talmud ». In the sixth century the living word of the rabbis ceased to be written because it stopped speaking, that is to say, it went into a long exile beyond the history of which it was guarantor. The records of the life of the study have become finite, completed, countable. Many treatises could not be written, and the unique human endeavor of an infinite book without authors has stopped. We can dream of what would have been a Talmud who would have continued to write until today. The Jewish tradition is, in the language of men, become the rabbinic tradition, which has identified itself entirely with the Talmud. Religious Hebrew literature has shrunk, becoming tiny and concentrating in tiny characters on the margins of the central text, gloating, commenting, explaining – but already out of the book. […] The miracle is the Zohar himself who realized it: he managed to revive the tradition of the book in Israel, he proved that the word was not extinct, silted in the long tragic history of exile. The Zohar must therefore be considered as a member of the Talmud treaty family, the youngest, no doubt, late and unexpected, but of a fiery youth, initiator of the future. […] The literary structure of the Zohar is not an imitation of the literary structure of the Talmud, it is the continuation of it. The essential difference between one and the other does not reside in the supposedly artificial character of the Zohar’s discussions […] but in the fact that the word here is mostly exchanged on the way, on the occasion of journeys. The fellow-students are fellow travelers here, so that the story line follows the meanders and encounters of the courses. The theme of exile is intimately involved, as Rabbi Abraham Azulai, one of the greatest commentators of the Zohar, writes in his book, « Hesed le Abraham »: « We must understand, » he says, « the problem of displacement of righteous people, such as Rabbi Simeon bar Yohai and his companions, most of whose words were pronounced on the roads. The reason is that after the ruin of the Temple, the Presence was repudiated from the Palace of the King of the World and no longer unites with him. She left, wandering from place to place. […] « While the reader of the Talmud has the posture of the seated man (talmudic school = yeshiva, sitting), the reader of the Zohar is invited to take that of the traveler, the man on the move.
(extract of the psalm 111 associated to this generation, verses 1 and 2 )
- Hallelujah, I shall thank the Lord with all my heart with the counsel of the upright and [in] the congregation.
- Great are the works of the Lord, available to all who desire them.
- In  the Kabbalist conception, the notion of En Sof (« Not Ended », infinite) is fundamental and emphasizes the immense gap and the total opposition between the divinity and all that is not it. The Kabbalists thus describe this Divinity as desiring to open up, even partially to the world of men. This conception is all the more important in the perspective of religion, for Divinity is defined in the Scriptures as an authority that commands and addresses man. Man, on his side, also addresses God in his prayer, a Divinity that would be personal. The prophets play the role of intermediary between God and men. […]
(extract of the psalm 111 associated to this generation, verses 3 to 5 )
- Majesty and splendor are His work, and His righteousness endures forever.
- He made a memorial for His wonders; the Lord is gracious and merciful.
- He gave food to those who fear Him; He remembers His covenant forever.
In this last verse, the « food of those who revere it » seems to be an evocation of Simon Bar Yohai, author of the Zohar following the Jewish legend, who would have eaten only carob and water for thirteen years took refuge in a cave to escape the Romans and devote himself to study.
- but the Lord made the heavens.
- Splendor and majesty are before him; strength and glory are in his sanctuary.
- Historians  of Hebrew literature often use such terms as « new thrust », « from one day to another », « ex nihilo », « revolutionary act », etc. « In Spain […] by a unique miracle, has flourished on the stage of history […] a certain virgin Judaism […] who lived until then totally isolated or almost and suddenly began to immerse himself […] […] ] Jewish and Arab cultural bases « . Men of the golden age themselves considered the beginnings of poetry as a great renewal. Abraham ibn Dawud, Jewish chronicler of the twelfth century, says in his « Book of Kabbalah »: « In the days of Hasdai Ha-Nasi, they begin to whistle and time Shlomo ha-Naguid they sing out loud »; Moshe ibn Ezra (1055-1140), in his classic book on poetics, says in the chapter of the poetry of the Golden Age: « In these times, spirits come out of their torpor. »
- The Cabalists  put the relationship with God at the center of all their attention: above Thinking and Being. God is called « En Sof », the Unlimited, the Infinite, the Perfect Divine, hidden and unknowable. […] It is precisely by trying to establish a link with the Divine that the Cabalists wondered whether it was thinkable that the Perfect (God) and the limited (the man) could have communicated? Otherwise, the ecstatic or at least intuitive contact with God, the main aspiration of the mystic, would be lost. […] Thanks to the Sefirot, God made himself visible. […]
(extract of the psalm 111 associated to this generation, verses 6 to 10 )
- The strength of His works He related to His people, to give them the inheritance of the nations.
- The works of His hands are truth and justice; all His commandments are faithful.
- Steadfast forever, made in truth and uprightness.
- He sent redemption to His people; He commanded His covenant forever; His name is holy and awesome.
- The beginning of wisdom is the fear of the Lord; good understanding to all who perform them; his praise endures forever.
 According to André Clot: « The Egypt of the Mamluks, 1250-1517, the Empire of the Slaves ». Chapters: « The war of liberation / The end of the crossed states of the rising ». (French: « L’Égypte des Mamelouks, 1250-1517, l’Empire des esclaves ». Chapitres : « La guerre de libération / La fin des états croisés du levant». (p. 92 à 114) )
 Foreword About Zohar Volume 1 (Verdier Publishing) by Charles Mopsik (French: Avant-Propos du Zohar Tome 1 (éditions Verdier ) de Charles Mopsik (p. 10 à 12) )
 (Directed by) Shmuel Trigano « The Sephardic world – II, Civilization ». Chapter of Moshe Hallamish: « Kabbalah in Medieval Spain ». (French: « Le monde sépharade – II, Civilisation ». Chapitre de Moshe Hallamish: « La Kabbale dans l’Espagne médiévale ». (p. 375,376) )
 (Directed by Ron Barkaï): « Christians, Muslims and Jews in medieval Spain ». Tova Moqed-Rosen: « Spanish Jewish poetry ». (p.106). The author inscribes a quote from E. Fleischer. (French: « Chrétiens, musulmans et juifs dans l’Espagne médiévale ». Tova Moqed-Rosen : « La poésie juive espagnole ». (p. 106) ).
 Riccardo Calimani: « The Jewish wandering ». Chapter: « Discrimination, Persecution, Survival ». (French: « L’errance juive ». Chapitre : « La discrimination, la persécution, la survie ». (p. 176) )