Constantinople which was created over a thousand years ago is struggling to survive the Turkish pressure, the death of John V in 1391 which ensured the longest reign in Byzantine history (1341-1391, a half century).
The Thessaloniki just falling into the hands of the Turks as well as Serbia (Battle of Kosovo in 1389), the former Byzantine empire almost reduced to Constantinople is ready to collapse and is de facto vassal Bajazet (Bayezid 1st), Sultan Ottoman (1389-1402). The new emperor Manuel II (1391-1425) tried to regain his independence from the Sultan by trying to rally to him the European Christian forces by privileging the confrontation with the Ottoman Sultan.
A decisive battle began in 1396. Constantinople was under Ottoman threat, Manuel II tried without any real success to rally to him the help of the Europeans, France and England among others. Byzantium, isolated, should definitely have become Ottoman to this generation but the Ottomans are under attack by Tamerlane, a new Mongol invader, which delays the conquest of Constantinople nearly fifty years.
- In the fourteenth century , the situation (for Jews in Christian Spain) continues to deteriorate. In 1320, the crusade of pastoureaux, part of France, causes in Aragon disorders with many attacks against the Jews.
(extract of the psalm 117 associated with the previous generation, verse 1 )
- I shall pay my vows to the Lord now in the presence of all His people.
- Difficult in the eyes of the Lord is the death of His pious ones.
- Please, O Lord, for I am Your servant; I am Your servant the son of Your maidservant; You have loosed my thongs.
- To You I shall slaughter a thanksgiving offering, and I shall call out in the name of the Lord.
Pablo de Santa Maria  as his son, as well as many other converts will become bishop after his conversion. As a wise man  ; he chooses the name of Paul (Pablo), in remembrance of the apostle, and the name of Santa Maria, to better claim a resplendent kinship, because as a member of the tribe of Levi, he claimed to be of the same stock as the Blessed Virgin. He made a masterly and long career, […] his tomb became a place of pilgrimage (for Christians).
(extract of the psalm 117 associated to this generation, verses 1 and 2 )
- Praise the Lord, all nations, laud Him, all peoples.
- For His kindness has overwhelmed us, and the truth of the Lord is eternal. Hallelujah!
 Esther Benbassa / Aron Rodrigue: « History of the Sephardic Jews ». Chapter: « The end of Sefarad? (Prologue) » (French: « Histoire des Juifs sépharades ». Chapitre : « La fin de Sefarad ? (Prologue) ». (p. 37 à 39) ).
 According to Esther Benbassa / Aron Rodrigue: « History of the Sephardic Jews ». (French: « Histoire des Juifs sépharades ». (p. 42) ).
 Léon Poliakov: « History of anti-Semitism: 1. The age of faith ». Chapter: « The Spain of the Three Religions » (French: « Histoire de l’antisémitisme : 1. L’âge de la foi ». Chapitre : « L’Espagne des trois religions » (p. 150) ).