Indeed, if the Ottomans fail to expand their conquests in Europe, they assert their domination over the Mediterranean world, thus ensuring once again a bipolarization of the world, at least as regards the contours of the ancient world (Europe, Orient).
- When  Jewish travelers speak of a Jerusalem « in ruin and desolation », they mean that the Holy City is subject to foreign domination and that the Temple is not rebuilt there. In fact, Moses Bassola, who visits Jerusalem in 1521, describes a lively and lively city:
(extract of the psalm 122 associated to this generation, verses 1 to 3)
- A song of ascents of David. I rejoiced when they said to me, « Let us go to the house of the Lord. »
- Our feet were standing within your gates, O Jerusalem.
- The built-up Jerusalem is like a city that was joined together within itself.
(extract of the psalm 122 associated to this generation, verses 4 to 9 )
- There ascended the tribes, the tribes of God, testimony to Israel, to give thanks to the name of the Lord.
- For there were set thrones for judgment, thrones for the house of David.
- Request the welfare of Jerusalem; may those who love you enjoy tranquility.
- May there be peace in your wall, tranquility in your palaces.
- For the sake of my brethren and my companions, I shall now speak of peace in you.
- For the sake of the house of the Lord our God, I shall beg for goodness for you.
 Gérard Nahon: « The holy land at the time of Kabbalists ». (French: « La terre sainte au temps des Kabbalistes ». (p. 24 à 26) )