To this generation of the 1530s and 1540s, the Jewish population in the Holy Land is expanding, so the Jewish community of Jerusalem continues to grow. But the overall growth of the city makes the Jewish population a minority. The expansion of the Jewish presence in Jerusalem, if confirmed, remains constrained by the Ottoman administration and the economic situation.
- But  it is especially twenty years after the journey of Bassola (in 1522) that religious life reaches its peak. Several prominent rabbinical scholars mark the Jewish community of Jerusalem in the middle of the century. The life of each of them is characteristic of both the renewal of Jerusalem and the difficulties that arise.
- If there exists  a city (of the Holy Land) to which the term « Renaissance » obviously applies, it is Safed in the 16th century. The city exists not since Biblical times, but since the Talmudic period. […]
- It is in Safed  that the Kabbalah of the sixteenth century reaches its peak. Joseph Caro, Solomon Halevi Alkabets, Moses Cordovero (1522-1570) are among the most prominent Kabbalists in the city; they clearly benefit from the gathering of various schools of Jewish mysticism which operates there. Isaac Louria Ashkenazi (1534-1572) created the famous school of which Haim Vital (1542-1620), his disciple, developed and popularized the system to exert a profound influence on the Sephardic and Ashkenazi Kabbalists of the following centuries.
In this poem, the author reaffirms his confidence in God and reaffirms his belief in the coming of the Messiah who will put an end to the humiliations suffered by the Jews by other peoples (the expulsion from Spain is still in everyone’s minds especially some who lived it).
(extract of the psalm 123 associated to this generation, verses 1 to 3 )
- A song of ascents. To You I lifted up my eyes, You Who dwell in heaven.
- Behold, as the eyes of slaves to the hand of their masters, as the eyes of a handmaid to the hand of her mistress, so are our eyes to the Lord our God, until He favors us.
- Favor us, O Lord, favor us, for we are fully sated with contempt.
While Christoph Columbus had limited his establishment in the West Indies, in 1519 Cortes discovers South America and begins the conquest from the current Mexico, the Portuguese had their foot in Brazil as early as 1500 (thinking to discover a new archipelago) which in a mysteriously timely manner had fallen into their possession following the Treaty of Tordesillas which in 1494 decided to divide the world between Spain and Portugal with the Pope’s blessing. Other European countries are not left out, Jacques Cartier discovers Canada in 1537 without visibly realizing the importance of the continent discovered (North America).
The hegemony of Spain and Portugal on the new world will be questioned only later, while waiting for the gold and the riches of the new world abound in the Iberian peninsula comforting the monarchs of these countries that the decision of to expel the Jews from their kingdom has been beneficial to them and has brought them the divine blessing. This blessing, however, will not be eternal, and soon these countries will disappear from the front of the European stage and the international scene.
(extract of the psalm 123 associated to this generation, verses 4)
- Our soul is fully sated with the ridicule of the complacent, the contempt [shown] to the valley of doves.
 Renée Neher-Bernheim: « Jewish Life in the Holy Land, 1517-1918 ». Chapter: « The sixteenth century ». (French: «La vie juive en Terre sainte, 1517-1918». Chapitre : « Le XVIe siècle ». (p. 50/51) )
 Renée Neher-Bernheim: « Jewish Life in the Holy Land, 1517-1918 ». Chapter: « The sixteenth century ». (French: «La vie juive en Terre sainte, 1517-1918». Chapitre : « Le XVIe siècle ». (p. 53/58) )
 Esther Benbassa and Aron Rodrigue: « History of the Sephardic Jews ». Chapter: « Economy and Culture ». (French: « Histoire des Juifs sépharades ». Chapitre : « Économie et culture ». (p. 161) )
 Renée Neher-Bernheim: « Jewish Life in the Holy Land, 1517-1918 ». Chapter: « The sixteenth century ». (French: «La vie juive en Terre sainte, 1517-1918». Chapitre : « Le XVIe siècle ». (p. 60) )