If the signs of decadence are already visible, Spain may still believe in the preservation of its hegemonic position to the present generation. Spain renounces itself to the Empire built by Charles V by separating from Germany perhaps already being aware of its financial and human (demographic) limits.
- Most converts  from Judaism became very pious Christians. But the Spaniards were apparently unable to meet their presence. The conversos participated brilliantly in the 16th century Spanish, golden age of this civilization. Among the great figures from their ranks were St. Teresa of Avila, mystic and founder of convents, Fernando de Rojas, author of the first great literary work of the Spanish Renaissance, Diego Lainez, friend of Saint Ignatius Loyola and second general of the Jesuit order, Francisco de Vitoria, the greatest jurist of the sixteenth century; there were still poets, humanists, novelists. Most Spaniards found the conversos of the aristocracy unbearable.
(extract of the psalm 124 associated to this generation, verses 1 to 3 )
- A song of ascents. Of David. Had it not been for the Lord Who was with us, let Israel declare now.
- Had it not been for the Lord Who was with us when men rose up against us,
- Then they would have swallowed us raw when their anger was kindled against us.
- Then the waters would have washed us away; illness would have passed over our soul.
- Then the wicked waters would have passed over our soul.
- In 1553 , the Jewish physician of Soliman introduced him to Joseph Nasi, whose family was forced to convert to Christianity before fleeing to Istanbul, after a trip by Holland and Italy. There, he won the confidence of the Sultan and became the confidential agent of his son and heir. Joseph, referred to by European diplomats as the « Great Jew », ran a complex trading empire. He served as emissary and mysterious international intermediary to the sultan, referee of war and finance, mediator between East and West. Joseph believed in the return of the Jews to the Promised Land, and Soliman granted him the lordship of Tiberias in Galilee. He rebuilt the city, settled Italian Jews there, planted mulberry trees to develop the silk industry, and was the first Jew to plant Jews in the Holy Land. He built his Jerusalem in Galilee, because this expert of the things of power knew that the true Jerusalem was the preserve of the sultan.
- By a curious  reversal of history, because it was associated with the appearance of a world economy turned towards the Atlantic and the rise of new shopping centers in North-West of Europe, the episode « new Christian » did not only bring about a renewal of the Jewish presence in a Western Europe that had rejected it since the Middle Ages. It eventually leads to the emergence of new Jewish centers in the Americas and elsewhere. In the Anglo-Saxon world, Jews reappeared in the mid-seventeenth century as new-Christian emigrants, from Amsterdam to London or Dutch Brazil for what would become the British colonies of the New World. The Sephardic communities of the West thus turned to new directions, those very regions where some of the great upheavals of the contemporary history of the Jews took place. The expulsion of the Jews from Spain and the series of events that led to the extinction of all Jewish life in the Iberian Peninsula actually sowed the seeds of a Jewish renaissance in Western Europe.
(extract of the psalm 124 associated to this generation, verses 6 to 8 )
- Blessed is the Lord, Who did not give us as prey for their teeth.
- Our soul escaped like a bird from the hunters’ snare; the snare broke, and we escaped.
- Our help is in the name of the Lord, Who made heaven and earth.
 Chaim Potok: « A story of the Jewish people ». Chapter: « Christianity, lost in the enchanted country ». (French: « Une histoire du peuple Juif ». Chapitre : « Le christianisme, perdus dans le pays enchanté ». (p. 499-500) ).
 Simon Sebag Montefiore: « Jerusalem – Biography ». Chapter: « Mystics and Messiahs ». (French: « Jérusalem – Biographie ». Chapitre : « Mystiques et messies ». (p. 356,357) )
 Esther Benbassa and Aron Rodrigue: « History of the Sephardic Jews ». Chapter: « The end of Sefarad? « . (French: « Histoire des Juifs sépharades ». Chapitre : « La fin de Séfarad ? ». (p. 69) ).