- Elizabeth 1st became  Queen in 1558. Her reign associated with the name of Shakespeare and the victory over the Invincible Armada, remains one of the most glorious in the history of England. (She succeeds Marie Tudor who fought the Protestantism adopted by her predecessor). […]
- Elizabeth naturally returns to Protestantism, but with great concern for moderation. (..) In 1563 are proclaimed the « Thirty Nine Articles of Religion », which constitute the true charter of Anglicanism. […] In 1570, Elizabeth (daughter of Anne Boleyn, bastard in the eyes of Catholics) is officially excommunicated by the pope, who accepts as only legitimate sovereign Mary Stuart, the Queen of Scotland. […]
- After 1570, England’s relations with Spain deteriorated. The fate of the English Catholics and Mary Stuart can not leave indifferent the « very Catholic » king, who also does not support English incursions into his empire. During his world tour of 1577-1580, the English navigator Francis Drake intercepted a Spanish convoy and seized his gold. As Elizabeth braves the complaints of the Spanish ambassador in arming Drake knight, Philip II makes the decision to eliminate these opponents. He assembled a fleet, considerable for the time, and baptized him the Invincible Armada himself.
- On May 20, 1588, 10300 sailors and 19000 soldiers piled on 130 buildings leave the port of Lisbon. The Invincible Armada, however, is defeated by both English sailors and the storm. Only 63 boats return to Spain. This humiliation does not really begin the Spanish domination of the Atlantic, but England has shown its power and can now conquer the world.
- The royal policy  of forced integration of the Jews (Portuguese) met its main obstacle in the popular hatred against the neophytes, of which testifies the great number of lawsuits for offenses and insults. Verbal abuse quickly turned into physical attacks. This was the case in the spring of 1504, when a riot occurred in Lisbon, then in 1505 in Evora, when the crowd raised against the new Christians destroyed the old synagogue. A year later, in Lisbon, hatred swelled to the point of provoking a terrible pogrom.
Although the history of the end of Iberian Judaism has been peppered with other deaths and other abuses and injustices, this massacre has a peculiarity. The expulsion from Spain in 1492 left the Jews free to convert or leave the country. Many then fled to Portugal. But in Portugal these same Jews who had preferred the exile of their homeland and ancestral to the conversion were trapped in 1497, the king imposing the conversion without possibility of a new exile.
This generation is also marked by St. Bartholomew on August 24, 1572. While completing the reconquest, Spain had decided the expulsion of Jews in 1492 in the hope of unifying Spain and Europe behind the unified banner of Catholicism, four generations later, exactly 80 years later, this unification is shattering.
- While  at Lepanto was consumed the armed clash between East and West, Christian Europe was in the throes of such great changes that many historians considered the 1570s a symbolic date. The hard struggle between Catholics and Protestants had transformed the political philosophy of the rulers and the powerful, and the Roman Church could no longer exercise exclusive control of power. An economically more flexible and livelier society gave birth to new values: reason of state, for example, slipped into the embryo of modern nations, drastically opposed decadent political, cultural and religious models. Some intellectuals, Montaigne, Bacon, Bodin, Lipse, interpreted this spiritual change (perhaps not as instant as certain historians would have it, but certainly drastic and rapid) and they gave philosophical and cultural expression to this radical skepticism. a conflict of ambivalent values. As for the economic front, the interest of the state prevailed over the old religious demands and increased the collective and individual pressure towards well-being. All this could not be without fallout on the destinies of the Jews, so sensitive in spite of themselves to any political, economic, social and religious fluctuation. This profound upheaval of points of view has led some historians to dare to consider 1570 as the beginning of modern Jewish history, since these years were precisely those of the beginning of Jewish readmission in the West and Central Europe: a diffuse and simultaneous change, in Italy, Germany, France, the Netherlands, which took place in a wider transformation of the whole European mentality. After bitter religious struggles, a fundamental stability took shape: the Edict of Nantes (1598) recognized the freedom of worship of the Calvinists. In the Netherlands, Catholics and Protestants shared their areas of influence. In some countries, it was not only a return: in a spectacular gesture, Maximilian II (1564-1576) and his entire court visited the Judenstadt in Prague in 1571. His successor Rodolphe II deepened in 1577 the policy of his father, by a charter which specified conditions so favorable that in 1600, the community of Prague counted three thousand people came partly from the east, thus reversing the trend of great flows western sixteenth century. […]
(extract of the psalm 125 associated to this generation, verse 1 )
- A song of ascents. Those who trust in the Lord are like Mount Zion, which will not falter but will abide forever.
- In  the eighties of the (sixteenth) century, the highest rabbinical leaders of the diaspora transport their penates and their court to Jerusalem; among them, Rabbi Chaim Vital Calabrese, principal disciple of Isaac Luria Ashkenazi, and Rabbi Bezalel Ashkenazi, both disciples of the supreme authority of the generation, David ben Solomon Ibn Avi Zimra, who abandoned the opulent community of Cairo for to occupy the major pulpit of Jerusalem in 1587. The route of Solomon ben Joseph Sirillo would provide a model of the hierochemical rabbi in the sixteenth century. Coronation of a career, the earthly Jerusalem exhales the perfumes of the heavenly Jerusalem. Hundreds of rabbis live and teach in Jerusalem in agreement or misunderstanding.
(extract of the psalm 125 associated to this generation, verse 2 )
- Jerusalem has mountains around it, and the Lord is around His people from now and to eternity.
(extract of the psalm 125 associated to this generation, verses 3 to 5 )
- For the rod of wickedness will not rest on the lot of the righteous, because the righteous do not stretch out their hands into wrongdoing.
- Be good, O Lord, to the good and to the upright in their hearts.
- And those who turn their crooked ways-may the Lord lead them away with the workers of iniquity, [and may there be] peace on Israel.
 (Preface by) Jean Delumeau: « A history of the world in modern times ». Chapter: « The Great European Power, 1555-1600 ». (French: « Une histoire du monde aux temps modernes ». Chapitre : « Les grandes puissance européennes, 1555-1600 ». (p. 98,99) )
 (Preface by) Jean Delumeau: « A history of the world in modern times ». Chapter: « The Great European Power, 1555-1600 ». (French: « Une histoire du monde aux temps modernes ». Chapitre : « Les grandes puissance européennes, 1555-1600 ». (p. 110 à 117) )
 Carsten L. Wilke: « History of Portuguese Jews ». (French: « Histoire des Juifs portugais ». (p. 91,92) )
 (Preface by) Jean Delumeau: « A history of the world in modern times ». Chapter: « The Great European Power, 1555-1600 ». (French: « Une histoire du monde aux temps modernes ». Chapitre : « Les grandes puissance européennes, 1555-1600 ». (p. 107 à 110) ).
 Henry Méchoulan: « The Jews of silence in the Spanish Golden Age ». (French: « Les Juifs du silence au siècle d’or espagnol ». (p.155) )
 Riccardo Calimani: « The Jewish Wandering ». Chapter XV: The era of the ghettos (French: « L’Errance juive ». Chapitre XV : « L’ère des ghettos ». (p. 264-265) )
 Gérard Nahon: « The holy land at the time of Kabbalists ». (French: « La terre sainte au temps des Kabbalistes ». (p. 99,100) )