This renewal is largely perceptible in Jewish practice where new songs enrich the Jewish liturgy. Thus we have already quoted the contribution of Solomon  Alkabets Halevi (1505-1584) who composes the liturgical poem Leah Dodi which becomes a fundamental element of the Friday night prayers for the reception of the Sabbath.
- With  Solomon Alkabets, mysticism finds a poetic expression that makes it popular. This remains true of the second generation of Safed, that of Louria and his followers. Louria himself has left us several poems, one of which is very well known. He is still sung today in the family circle on Shabbat. It is « Yom ze le-Israel » (this Sabbath day is for Israel light and joy). […] To these giants of Jewish thought in Safed, we must add some other religious figures whose works are also adopted by all the communities of the world.
- We can not cite here all the names of men, even of great value, who, in one area or another, have contributed to what may be called the golden age of Safed. It would be tedious. But they were there, dozens, maybe hundreds, with their knowledge, their writings, their radiance. In introduction to one of Safed’s written letters, Abraham Yaari writes:
(extract of the psalm 126 associated to this generation, verses 1 and 2 )
- A song of ascents. When the Lord returns the returnees to Zion, we shall be like dreamers.
- Then our mouths will be filled with laughter and our tongues with songs of praise; then they will say among the nations, « The Lord has done great things with these. »
England from this generation is one of the dominant nations, it is the generation of Shakespeare, that of the creation of Virginia, name given in honor of Queen Elizabeth, the Virgin Mary, who announces the conquest of North America by England. Essential milestone in the birth of the United States of America that will mark the modern period.
Attached to Paris, he launched the transformations that will make it one of the capitals of the modern world in the same way that London is also taking off for this generation. Jews are still not officially allowed to reside in France although King Henry II has already accepted the presence of « new Christians » in 1550 without ignoring their true belief. As long as these Jews feign Christianity externally while retaining Judaism for the private sphere, they are accepted into the kingdom of France.
- After  (the death of Don Joseph Nassi) comes on stage Salomon Abenaes (1520-1603), a character of the same scale, ex-Portuguese marrano, immensely rich for having been given the diamond mines of a kingdom of the Indies, returned to Judaism in Turkey where he succeeded Nassi’s position at the Court and became Duke of Mytilene, one of the most important islands of the Aegean Sea.
(extract of the psalm 126 associated to this generation, verses 3 and 4 )
- « The Lord has done great things with us; we were happy. »
- Return, O Lord, our captivity like rivulets in arid land.
- The arrival  of the first groups of Iberian marranos (in Amsterdam) wishing to return to Judaism is surrounded by legends. It is said, for example, that Manuel Lopez Pereira and his sister Maria Nuñez had embarked in Portugal to escape the Inquisition and that, imprisoned by the English, they lasted their life and their freedom to the extraordinary beauty of the young lady Nuñez. Queen Elizabeth herself, fascinated, would have offered to visit London in an open carriage. Still resistant to temptations, the beautiful Nuñez would have asked to be able to continue her trip towards Amsterdam where, a few years later, she would have married in the Hebrew rite a marranos, companion of travel. Another tradition reports that new Christians, who came by sea from Portugal to the Netherlands, were wrecked in 1601 at Emdem. There, it seems that they met the German rabbi Moses Uri Ha-Levi. Some sources claim that these fugitives, finally touching Amsterdam thanks to him, were discovered in a house celebrating the feast of the atonement, the Kippur, for some in 1596, for others in 1603. Convinced at first that it was a clandestine meeting of Spanish Christians, the magistrates arrested them all. The spokesman of the Portuguese Marranos, Jacob Tirado, of his Spanish name James Lopes da Costa, explained in Latin that they were not Christians, but many Jewish proscribed. Assured of the good faith of Tirado, the burgomaster of Amsterdam would then have authorized the constitution of the Portuguese Jewish community of Amsterdam, a novelty for a city that had never had Jewish inhabitants.
- The fall  of Spanish Judaism turned into a veritable apotheosis. The Iberian diaspora did not only move east, south, west, but also to the north: Amsterdam, then England, as well as Poland and the deep Balkans saw the arrival of Sephardic Jews. New Jewish cities appeared: Amsterdam, Livorno, Constantinople, Salonica, Curacao, etc. It was the first time that a world Jewish system was constituted. We must emphasize here its Jewish dimension, because this system was based solely on the Sephardic communities, transcending empires and civilizations, and not on a global political framework, existing outside the Jewish society and encompassing it, as was the case with the Roman Empire in the Hellenistic period, then the unified Islamic Empire of the origins. The « Jewish nation » was the global framework for this dispersal.
(extract of the psalm 126 associated to this generation, verses 5 and 6 )
- Those who sow with tears will reap with song.
- He will go along weeping, carrying the valuable seeds; he will come back with song, carrying his sheaves.
 Renée Neher-Bernheim: « Jewish Life in the Holy Land, 1517-1918 ». Chapter: « The sixteenth century ». (French: «La vie juive en Terre sainte, 1517-1918». Chapitre : « Le XVIe siècle ». (p. 60) ).
 Renée Neher-Bernheim: « Jewish Life in the Holy Land, 1517-1918 ». Chapter: « The sixteenth century ». (French: «La vie juive en Terre sainte, 1517-1918». Chapitre : « Le XVIe siècle ». (p. 57 à 66) ).
 (directed by) Shmuel Trigano: « The Sephardic World, I – History ». Chapter of Shmuel Trigano: « The Duchy of Galilee ». (French: « Le monde sépharade, I – Histoire ». Chapitre de Shmuel Trigano : « Le duché de Galilée». (p. 336,337) )
 Riccardo Calimani: « The Jewish wandering ». Chapter: « The Age of Ghettos ». (French: « L’errance juive ». Chapitre : « L’ère des ghettos ». (p. 273,274) ).
 (directed by) Shmuel Trigano: « The Sephardic World, I – History ». Chapter of Shmuel Trigano: « The Sephardic Invention of Jewish Modernity ». (French: Shmuel Trigano : « Le monde sépharade, I – Histoire ». Chapitre de Shmuel Trigano : « L’invention sépharade de la modernité juive ». (p. 252) ).