In this generation  of the 1670s and 1680s the sclerosis of the Ottoman Empire seems to stop with the arrival of a new dynasty of great viziers: the Köprülü who succeed one another from 1656 to 1683. They stabilize the government and clean up finances. It is under their domination that the Turkish empire knows its most important territorial expansion. Crete is conquered, Podolia (Piedmont of the Carpathians) and Ukraine pass under Ottoman rule. This supremacy is disputed among others by the Persians and the Habsburgs of Austria and especially by the Russia of Peter the Great who imposes in 1681 the control of the orthodox of the Ottoman Empire.
While on the eastern side, the Muslim presence in Europe declines, the fate of Europe is played through its Western powers. This generation  is thus marked by the reign of Louis XIV, the Sun King, which corresponds to a phase of greatness, at least at the level of the image, of France.
In England , after the Cromwell episode, King Charles II embodies the monarchical restoration that also puts an end to puritanism, he will become Catholic only on his deathbed. James II succeeded him in 1685 and asserts himself as a Catholic king, this does not worry the English because James II is old and his daughters are Protestant and married to Protestants. But he gives birth to a son Jacques Edward, baptized Catholic who supplants the Protestant princesses. The reaction causes a new revolution.
- Since  the tragic end of Uriel Da Costa, the community seemed to be safe from major crises; his apparent orthodoxy could reassure both parnasim and magistrates. We know, however, that she was not safe from a creepy, sneaky crypto-deism against which rabbis and rulers had risen up. Fifteen years after the disappearance of Uriel, it is not only the Sephardic community that will be shaken, but Judaism as a whole. A son of a good family, Baruch Espinosa, will become Spinoza, the philosopher, and this, in spite of the careful Jewish education that had to be given him by the masters chosen by his father, Parnas (administrator of the community) from 1649 to 1650.
- Between 1959 and 1660 , Spinoza remained in Amsterdam, where he discovered, thanks to Dr. van den Enden, an old Jesuit, the philosophy of Descartes. His spiritual master confirmed him in his break with Judaism, because the pupil did not find in the science and the writings of the rabbis « these obvious truths and built on demonstrations that Descartes recommends to his disciples ».
(extract of the psalm 130 associated to this generation, verse 1 )
- A song of ascents. From the depths I have called You, O Lord.
- Chapter XIV  of the « Theological-Political Treatise » defines faith by submission or obedience to God. But what is more interesting in our context is none other than the author’s remark on the dogmas of universal faith: these must not be true, but necessary, because none of these dogmas contains any philosophical truth. perfect on what he states, but must strengthen obedience. Here are the points put forward by Spinoza: God exists, he is unique, he is everywhere, he has supreme power over everything: the worship of God consists in the practice of justice and charity. Only those who obey this rule will be saved. God forgives their sins to the repentant. Finally, Spinoza emphasizes that all these dogmas are necessary, which gives them an essentially political character. In his view, biblical legislation has political and non-religious value.
(extract of the psalm 130 associated to this generation, verses 2 to 5 )
- O Lord, hearken to my voice; may Your ears be attentive to the voice of my supplications.
- O God, if You keep [a record of] iniquities, O Lord, who will stand?
- For forgiveness is with You, in order that You be feared.
- I hoped, O Lord; yea, my soul hoped, and I wait for His word.
Indeed, another gulf – much more dangerous – is waiting for the souls of the Jews at this time and this generation, the one that follows the disillusionment of the false messiah Sabbatai Zevi.
(extract of the psalm 130 associated to this generation, verse 6 )
- My soul is to the Lord among those who await the morning, those who await the morning.
Indeed the Sabbatai Zevi adventure was a dramatic experience for Judaism of that time:
- Shabbetai Zevi  died suddenly on September 17, 1676, the day of Atonement. He was fifty years old. A little over three years later, on January 11, 1680, Nathan of Gaza died in his turn. Only their faithful knew of their death.
- According to a remarkable paradox , Spinoza promotes two fundamental orientations of modern Judaism: the assimilation first, or even the pure and simple abandonment of Judaism of the tradition, which would be maintained only by « the observation of external rites opposed to those of other nations « and by the » universal hatred « which follows (Theologico-political treatise, III). Assimilation is therefore the ineluctable horizon of the democratic state. Spinoza sees the prospect and the possibility of political Zionism: « I attribute such a value to the sign of circumcision that I alone judge it capable of assuring this Jewish nation an eternal existence; if even the principles of their religion did not soften their hearts, I would believe without reservation, knowing the mutability of human things, that on a given occasion the Jews will re-establish their empire and that God will elect them again (ibid.) « .
(extract of the psalm 130 associated to this generation, verses 7 and 8 )
- Israel, hope to the Lord, for kindness is with the Lord and much redemption is with Him.
- And He will redeem Israel from all their iniquities.
 From: (led by) Jean Delumeau: « History of the world from 1492 to 1789 ». « The Decadence of the Ottoman Empire » (French: « Histoire du monde de 1492 à 1789 ». « La décadence de l’empire ottoman» (p. 330 à 333) )
 From: (led by) Jean Delumeau: « History of the world from 1492 to 1789 ». « The » Beautiful « reign of Louis XIV », « The end of the reign of Louis XIV » and « The United Provinces » (French: « Histoire du monde de 1492 à 1789 ». « Le « Beau » règne de Louis XIV». (p. 302 à 307), « La fin du règne de Louis XIV » (p. 334 à 336) et « Les Provinces Unies » (p. 314 à 317) )
 From: (directed) Jean Delumeau: « History of the world from 1492 to 1789 ». Chapter « The English Restoration ». (French: « Histoire du monde de 1492 à 1789 ». Chapitre « La Restauration anglaise ». (p. 322 à 327) )
 Henry Méchoulan: « To be Jewish in Amsterdam at the time of Spinoza ». (French: « Être Juif à Amsterdam au temps de Spinoza ». (p. 137) )
 Henry Méchoulan: « To be Jewish in Amsterdam at the time of Spinoza ». (French: « Être Juif à Amsterdam au temps de Spinoza ». (p. 146) )
 Maurice Ruben Hayoun: « The Enlightenment of Cordoba in Berlin – An Intellectual History of Judaism (2) ». Preface (« Spinoza, Voltaire and Renan »). (French: « Les Lumières de Cordoue à Berlin – Une histoire intellectuelle du judaïsme (2) ». Préface (« Spinoza, Voltaire et Renan »). (p. XI) ).
 Chaim Potok: « A story of the Jewish people ». Chapter: « Secularism: The Messiahs of a Broken World ». (French: « Une histoire du peuple Juif ». Chapitre : « La Laïcité : les Messies d’un monde brisé ». (p. 532,533) ).
 Collective directed by Francine Cicurel: « Anthology of Judaism – 3000 years of Jewish culture ». Chapter on Baruch Spinoza. (French: « Anthologie du Judaïsme – 3000 ans de culture juive ». Chapitre sur Baruch Spinoza. (p. 118) ).