This generation is for France that of the Second Empire which puts in power (Emperor in 1852) Napoléon III after the coup d’état of December 2, 1851. Although decried, it brings France into the industrial age resulting in a strong economic boom. The Jews of France take full advantage of the economic and industrial growth of the Second Empire and still fully benefit from the effects of emancipation.
Following the failure of the 1848 revolutions, Prussia succeeded in uniting some of the German states to the detriment of Austria. The German unit will be completed by Bismarck at the end of this generation which will seal it via the conflict with France in 1870.
Whether in Europe or North America, the industrial and economic boom is accelerating the attraction of large cities. This generation of the 1850s and 1860s saw the birth of metropolises. In the second half of this century the populations of American cities like Chicago or Detroit or European cities like Paris, London, Vienna or Berlin see their population increase appreciably.
It is also for these renewed Jewish communities a chance of economic success and a more visible integration in the image of the construction of prestigious and imposing synagogues  : the synagogue of Oranienburgstrasse in Berlin (completed around 1865), that of the Victoire (completed in 1875) in Paris, that of the Dohany street in Pest (completed in 1859, Pest with Buda will be merged in 1873 in Budapest).
England, which focuses on its economic expansion, particularly with its aims in India and China, avoids confrontation with Prussia in the war of the duchies (1863-1864). For many historians, the decline of England begins with the Duchies war: by renouncing to maintain the balance of power on the continent, England consecrated the supremacy of Prussia, which is confirmed in 1871 with the victory in France.
It was also  the French reaction to the Batto Sfez affair in 1856 (executed for blasphemy) that allowed the Jews of Tunisia to gradually emancipate themselves. They had already benefited from the tolerant attitude of Ahmed Bey (1837-1855) upstream of this affair.
In Palestine , the Jewish presence is confirmed and facilitated by French influence.
The night seems to be over, it is besides to this generation that Henri Graetz writes and publishes his monumental history of the Jews, from which we take numerous extracts for the illustration of certain psalms. This work is an inventory of past misfortunes of the Jewish people which betrays the hope of the author that a new page is turned and that the future will spare the Jews from all torment.
- For the conductor. Of David, a song. O Lord, You have searched me out and You know.
- You know my sitting and my rising; You understand how to attach me from afar.
- My going about and my lying down You encompassed, and You are accustomed to all my ways.
- For there is no word on my tongue; behold, O Lord, You know it all.
But apart from that, the common filiation of the peoples, all from the same couple, Adam and Eve, was recognized by the nations of Christianity or Islam. they did not seek to physically eliminate the Jews, even though death was often at the rendezvous for the Jews in this first part of exile, that during which the people were under the influence of faith.
However, hatred towards the Jews has not faded so far in Europe, Christian land and beneficiary of the fallout of the « Enlightenment ». This hatred is obviously already very marked in Voltaire who is one of the forerunners of anticlericalism and Enlightenment. Even the Freemason societies which have largely contributed directly or indirectly to the emancipation of the Jews now take their distance with the Jews like the lodges of the German sphere especially from 1880 during the rise of anti-Semitism in Germany.
- As long as  the Jews actually lived under a regime of exception, they were considered, in good theological doctrine, as a full participant in human nature, the curse on them being only an expiation, from the point of view of the Christian anthropology. It was when they were emancipated, and were able to freely mix with the great bourgeois society, that the curse became, under the terms of a new so-called scientific anthropology, a biological difference or inferiority. Thus the despised caste became an inferior race, as if the old rouelle or conical hat was now engraved, « internalized » in their flesh, as if the sensibility of the West could not do without the certainty of a distinction which, once erased the « visible signs » identifying the Jew, became an « invisible essence ».
- By the mid-nineteenth century , ideas were maturing and combining, soon to become the bedrock of dangerous and hawkish racial theories, leading to the terrible events of the Second World War.
While Judaism and the religions that come from it advocate the help of the poor to survive, Malthus (1766-1834) in the early nineteenth century considers that population growth, if not halted , surpasses rapidly the increase of resources, which can only cause disasters.
Thus the principle of elimination of the inept is introduced by Darwin:
- All organized beings  struggle to seize vacant places in the economy of nature; therefore, if a species of any kind does not change or develop as fast as its competitors, it must be eliminated.
- Natural selection  acts only for the conservation of advantageous modifications; each new form occurring in a sufficiently populated locality, tends, therefore, to take the place of the less perfected primitive form, or other less favored forms with which it competes, and it ends up exterminating them. Thus, extinction and natural selection are constantly in concert.
- The extinction  of whole species and groups of species, which has played such an important part in the history of the organic world, is the inevitable consequence of natural selection; for the old forms must be supplanted by new and improved forms.
- The result  of this war of nature, which results in famine and death, is therefore the most admirable fact we can conceive, namely, the production of higher animals.
Darwin who could have become a pastor is « creationist » at the dawn of his first journey considering that the creations of nature meet the purpose of a superior intelligence. At the end of his life, « evolutionist » convinced, he rejects religious and religion. However, in his works, certain mysteries of creation lead him to express himself in a more nuanced way:
- The comparison  between the eye and the telescope naturally comes to mind. […] Do we have the right to assume that the Creator brings into play intelligent forces similar to those of man?
- The question  of the unity or plurality of centers of creation differs from another question: do all individuals of the same species descend from a single pair, or from a single hermaphrodite, or, as admitted by some authors, of several individuals simultaneously created? […]
Darwin makes this observation by considering that the creatures that populate the earth, the airs and the oceans around the planet come from the same pair spawner. Without being able to explain at this stage the multiple presence of the descendants of the same couple as those descendants of the pigeon.
(extract of the psalm 139 associated to this generation, verses 8 to 10 )
- If I ascend to the heavens, there You are, and if I make my bed in the grave, behold, You are there.
- [If] I take up the wings of dawn, [if] I dwell at the end of the west,
- There too, Your hand will lead me, and Your right hand will grasp me
- I begin  to find that I have no more intention to search for the origin of the mental faculties than those of the life.
(extract of the psalm 139 associated to this generation, verses 11 to 16 )
- I said, « Darkness will darken me, and the night will be as light about me. »
- Even darkness will not obscure [anything] from You, and the night will light up like day; as darkness so is the light.
- For You created my reins, You covered me in my mother’s womb.
- I shall thank You for in an awesome, wondrous way I was fashioned; Your works are wondrous, and my soul knows it very well.
- My essence was not hidden from You, when I was made in secret, I was formed in the lowest parts of the earth.
- Your eyes saw my unformed body, and on Your book they were all written; days have been formed and one of them is His.
- English engineer  of the industrial period, Herbert Spencer is the creator of philosophical evolutionism, which he develops into a « synthetic system », from 1860, and which will circumnavigate the world during the last third of XIXth century. […] He is the father of the very improperly named « social Darwinism », a crude application of the principle of selection-elimination to human social groups assimilated to organisms. He embodies the philosophy of the ultra-liberal competitive, individualist, anti-state and dogmatically hostile to any assistance to the poorest.
In order to react to dangerous deviations based on his theory of evolution, Darwin will publish in the early 1870s other works in which he extends the theory of evolution to man by trying to demonstrate that for man, evolution replaces the logic of extermination with the social instincts of self-help.
- The idea that natural selection , as a universal law of evolution, must necessarily also apply, with all its cruelly eliminatory consequences, to the functioning and historical development of human societies permeates the West since the years following the publication of « On the Origin of Species ». […]
- (In France, the most famous eugenicist, the doctor) Alexis Carrel (1873-1944), Nobel Prize in 1912 […], is the partisan declared in 1936, Nazi measures of biological purification of the race and promoter of the use of gas chambers for the « humane and economic » treatment of the problem posed to society by certain delinquents and mentally ill persons.
Proudhon, author of the formula: « property is theft », one of the first theoreticians of socialism, who will have exchanges with Karl Marx before he distanced himself, also rushes into racial anti-Semitism.
The racist anti-Semitism that is born in France, as Proudhon demonstrates, also takes root in Germany:
- In the perspective  of racist anti-Semitism, the German obsession with the purity of blood leads to a condemnation of Jews even in the absence of a specific hatred, and alongside the type of international anti-Semitism whose mental universe is peopled with Jews, one sees appear the German type of the patriot subjectively non-anti-Semitic, but which is hostile to them because it professes the myth of the race. […]
It is also to this generation that Karl Marx, who claims to be an atheist despite his Jewish origins rejected by a virulent anti-Semitism, publishes the first part of « Capital » which lays the foundation for the « class struggle » and the capitalism / communism dichotomy of the twentieth century.
(extract of the psalm 139 associated to this generation, verses 17 and 18 )
- And to me, how dear are Your friends, O Lord! How great is their sum!
- I shall count them; they are more numerous than sand; I have come to the end, and I am still with You.
(extract of the psalm 139 associated to this generation, verses 19 and 20 )
- If only You would slay the wicked ! , O God, and men of blood, « Turn away from me. »
- Who mention You with wicked thought; Your enemies took it up in vain.
- In conclusion , finally: You (the Jews) are calculating animals, try to be thinking animals. This comparison between the Christian who thinks and the Jew who calculates, anticipates the a priori of racist anti-Semitism, decreeing the superiority of the creative intelligence of the Christians, become Aryans, on the sterile intellect of the Jews. We find the same modern Voltaire when he asserts that the Jews are plagiarists in everything, or when he writes, in the « Essay on the mores »: « We looked at the Jews in the same eye as the Negroes, as a kind of inferior man.
- Kant), in  various writings and various places, advocated euthanasia for Judaism in a way that may have been only the metaphysical way of proclaiming « Death to the Jews ».
« To give them  (to the Jews) civil rights, this is only possible on one condition: to cut off their heads at all the same night and to give them a new one that no longer contains a single Jewish idea ».
Fichte  was the first to hypothesize an Aryan (and therefore non-Jewish) Christ. Only the Germans were fit, according to him, to collect « the grain of truth and life of the original Christianity » (not corrupted by the Jews and by Paul in particular).
- Jesus’ attempt  to give the troupe of the Jews the consciousness of the Divine could only fail, because faith in the Divine can not resist in the mud.
- This stubborn hostility (towards the Jews) , in the years 1830-1840, is not only the fact of the conservative circles, but also of the « Young Hegelians », atheists and radicals, Ludwig Feuerbach, Bruno Bauer and Karl Marx. Thus Feuerbach does not see in Judaism as egoism, materialism and … gluttony. Denying all spirituality and aesthetics to the religion of Moses, the author of the « Essence of Christianity » attributes to Judaism and its « Asian » destructive character the origin of all the evils of Christianity.
- It is true  that Scripture speaks of one human couple, created by God on the sixth day. But the learned men who noted the word of God, transmitted by the Bible, had first to deal with their chosen people, to whom we do not want to dispute in any way the honor of coming down from Adam. But we, as well as the Negroes and the Lapps, certainly have other ancestors: we will certainly agree that we differ from the true descendants of Adam in many ways, and that they exceed us in particular as regards ‘money.
- Let us  not seek the secret of the Jew in his religion, but seek the secret of religion in the real Jew. […] What in itself was the basis of the Jewish religion? The practical need, selfishness. The monotheism of the Jew is in reality the polytheism of the multiform need, a polytheism which makes even places of comfort an object of the divine law … Money is the jealous god of Israel, before whom no other god must subsist. Money degrades all the gods of man and turns them into commodities. Trafficking is the true god of the Jew. His god is only an illusory treat … what is contained in an abstract form in the Jewish religion, the contempt of theory, of art, of history, of man considered as his own goal, it is the real and conscious point of view, the virtue of the man of money.
- « The emancipation of the Jew , is the emancipation of the society of Judaism ». Or even more violently: « Jewish emancipation consists in emancipating humanity from Judaism ».
Kant, Fichte or Hegel  criticized Jews and Judaism within the framework of metaphysical systems that remained anchored in Lutheran theology, while progressively distancing themselves from it.
Schopenhauer (1788-1860), who broke the last moorings, joined the evangelical message to Buddhism. Moses being only a foreign and barbaric legislator or « guardian ». […] For Schopenhauer: « The Jews are the people chosen by their God, who is the God elected by his people, and it concerns no one but themselves and him. «
(extract of the psalm 139 associated to this generation, verses 21 to 24 )
- Did I not hate Your enemies, O Lord? With those who rise up against You, I quarrel.
- I hate them with utmost hatred; they have become my enemies.
- Search me out, O God, and know my heart; test me and know my thoughts.
- And see whether there is any vexatious way about me, and lead me in the way of the world.
 From: (led by) David Biale: « The cultures of the Jews ». Chapter of: « Urban Visibility and Biblical Visions ». (French: « Les cultures des Juifs ». Chapitre de : « Visibilité urbaine et visions bibliques » )
 (directed by) Theodore Zeldin: « History of the world from 1789 to 1918 ». Richard I. Cohen’s Chapter: « Victorian England ». (French: « Histoire du monde de 1789 à 1918 ». Chapitre: « L’Angleterre Victorienne ». (p. 267) )
 Renée Neher-Bernheim: « Jewish History of the Revolution to the State of Israel ». Chapter: « Towards a better life ». (French: « Histoire juive de la Révolution à l’Etat d’Israël ». Chapitre : « Vers un mieux-être ». (p. 334-335) ).
 As Renée Neher-Bernheim points out, this name is not satisfactory for the land of Israel. But it is the only usable before the creation of the state of Israel, although this name is the one given by Hadrian to punish the Jews after the revolt of Bar Kokhba thus trying to erase the ancestral memory of the Jewish land. . (See Renee Neher-Bernheim: « Jewish History of the Revolution in the State of Israel. » Chapter X, 356). This name already contains a denial of the attachment of this land to its people, the Jewish people. It is likely that those who use this terminology today do not really depart from Hadrian’s will.
 see: Jacob Katz: « Jews and Freemasons in Europe (1723-1939) ». (French: « Juifs et francs-maçons en Europe (1723-1939) »).
 Leon Poliakov: « History of anti-Semitism, 2 – the age of science ». (French: « Histoire de l’antisémitisme, 2 – l’âge de la science ». (p. 163- ) )
 Riccardo Calimani: « The Jewish Wandering ». Chapter: « Emancipation, flight, Zionism ». (French: « L’Errance juive ». Chapitre : « L’émancipation, la fuite, le sionisme ». (p. 475 à 478) )
 Darwin: « On the Origin of Species ». This excerpt is based on the French translation of Edmond Barbier (review by Daniel Becquemont), Flammarion edition. Chapter IV: « Natural selection ». (pp. 155/156).
 Darwin: « On the Origin of Species ». This excerpt is based on the French translation of Edmond Barbier (review by Daniel Becquemont), Flammarion edition. Chapter VI: « Difficulties of the theory« . (p. 231).
 Darwin: « On the Origin of Species ». This excerpt is based on the French translation of Edmond Barbier (review by Daniel Becquemont), Flammarion edition. Chapter XIV: « Summaries and Conclusions » (p. 547).
 Darwin: « On the Origin of Species ». This excerpt is based on the French translation of Edmond Barbier (review by Daniel Becquemont), Flammarion edition. Chapter XIV: « Summaries and Conclusions » (p. 563).
 Darwin: « On the Origin of Species ». This excerpt is based on the French translation of Edmond Barbier (review by Daniel Becquemont), Flammarion edition. Chapter VI: « Difficulties of the theory« . (p. 249).
 Darwin: « On the Origin of Species ». This excerpt is based on the French translation of Edmond Barbier (review by Daniel Becquemont), Flammarion edition. Chapter XI: « Geographical Distribution » (pp. 423 and 425).
 Darwin: « On the Origin of Species ». This excerpt is based on the French translation of Edmond Barbier (review by Daniel Becquemont), Flammarion edition. Chapter VII: « Instinct » (p. 269).
 Patrick Tort: « Darwin and the science of evolution ». (French: « Darwin et la science de l’évolution ». (p. 77 à 79) )
 Patrick Tort: « Darwin and Darwinism ». (French: « Darwin et Darwinisme ». (p. 68,69, puis 82,83) )
 Léon Poliakov: « History of antisemitism, the age of science ». (French: « Histoire de l’antisémitisme, l’âge de la science ». (p. 212-213, 227, 237 à 241) )
 Léon Poliakov: « History of antisemitism, the age of science ». This last quotation from Voltaire shows that denouncing slavery or its excesses does not necessarily mean that one is not racist. (French: « Histoire de l’antisémitisme, l’âge de la science ». (pp. 33 et 55) )
 Léon Poliakov: « History of antisemitism, the age of science ». (French: « Histoire de l’antisémitisme, l’âge de la science ». (p. 82)).
 Léon Poliakov: « History of antisemitism, the age of science ». (French: « Histoire de l’antisémitisme, l’âge de la science ». (p. 84)).
 See: Léon Poliakov: « History of antisemitism, the age of science ». (French: « Histoire de l’antisémitisme, l’âge de la science ». (p. 84) ).
 Léon Poliakov: « History of antisemitism, the age of science ». (French: « Histoire de l’antisémitisme, l’âge de la science ». (p. 86) ).
 Michel Abitbol : « Histoire des juifs, de la genèse à nos jours ». Chapitre : « Les chemins difficiles de la citoyenneté ». (p. 372)
 Léon Poliakov: « History of antisemitism, the age of science ». (French: « Histoire de l’antisémitisme, l’âge de la science ». (p. 168)).
 Léon Poliakov: « History of antisemitism, the age of science ». (French: « Histoire de l’antisémitisme, l’âge de la science ». (p. 233)).
 Michel Abitbol: « History of the Jews, from genesis to our days ». Chapter: « The difficult paths of citizenship ». (French: « Histoire des juifs, de la genèse à nos jours ». Chapitre : « Les chemins difficiles de la citoyenneté ». (p. 374) )
 According to: Leon Poliakov: « History of anti-Semitism, the age of science ». (French: « Histoire de l’antisémitisme, l’âge de la science ». (p. 265-266) ).