1950 AD to 1970 AD, Psalm 144: IDF (Tsahal)

help-bouton-fotolia_61356253_subscription_monthly_mButton aus zwei Puzzlestücken zeigt E-Mail Kontakt 

Tsahal [1].

The wars of Israel.

This generation of the years 1950 and 1960 is that of the wars of Israel, that of the war of 1956 against Egypt and especially the war of the six days in 1967. On the eve of this generation, there had already been the war of independence in 1948 and the next generation will begin with the Yom Kippur War. Four wars for which Israel has always emerged victorious even if the beginnings of Kingfarouk1948the last, that of Yom Kippur, were disastrous. These four wars are the only ones Israel has waged against armies formed in the classical sense of the term with uniformed soldiers (Israel was passive in the Gulf War).

515px-Suez_canal_30.55N_32.28EOn July 23, 1952, Farouk 1st king of Egypt is deposed by a coup d’etat. Then came a struggle for power, which ended up benefiting the young officer Gamel Abdel Nasser on November 14, 1954. Nasser proclaimed himself Raïs (Chief). In 1956, he nationalized the Suez Canal, almost at the end of the concession.

Nasser_cheered_by_supporters_in_1956Defying the great powers, including the former colonial powers on the decline of France and England, Nasser quickly became popular among the Arab masses.

France and England then want to get rid of the Egyptian troublemaker. Indeed the latter in addition to the nationalization of the channel, with the help of the Russians, encourages national Arab movements especially the Algerian Khider_-_Lacheraf_-_Aït_Ahmed_-_Boudiaf_-_Ben_Bellamovement, which calls into question the colonial empires of these old European nations.

Korean_War_02The Cold War began in 1950 with the Korean War and since then the two great powers have been trying to divide the world not by colonizing territories by direct occupation but by both economic and military influence.

 

This new model of indirect colonization of the twentieth century can not coexist with the mode of direct colonization established by the European powers in the nineteenth century. France and England will soon realize.

1024px-Tiran_R01

For Israel [2], the nationalization of the canal is associated with a blockade on the Strait of Tiran, passage between the Gulf of Akaba and the Red Sea, it opens access to Asia and West Africa. The blockade aggravates the restrictions already placed on the movement of Israeli boats on the Suez Canal since 1949; it is endangering Israel’s young economy, with much of its potash and phosphate exports to Africa.

British_tanks_in_Port_SaidTo this economic threat is associated a military threat, the Egyptians receive an important arsenal in military equipment, land, air and sea, in September 1955 which unbalances the balance of power with Israel. On September 19, 1955, Syria was placed under the unified command of Egypt, Jordan joined the coalition a year later.

Flickr_-_Israel_Defense_Forces_-_IDF_Jeep_Waving_at_French_BomberThe Israeli government led by Ben Gurion then decided to join Britain and France. Israel’s second war begins.

Before venturing into the war against Egypt [3], a meeting at Sevres, near Paris, brought together the representatives of England, France, and Israel: Israel was to attack Egypt. Then France and England had to give an ultimatum to Nasser for the Suez Canal and enter into action after the alleged refusal of it. The United States of America is aware of the agreement. The new masters of the world, the United States of America and the USSR defeat the former colonial powers.

Gamal-002Meanwhile the Suez conflict has rebuffed the cards in the East and around the world:

  • France and England [4] are defeated and especially humiliated by the false war that the two countries have not dared to bring to an end. London and Paris have lost the support of the United States, have alienated the Soviets, and are no longer in the near East two powerful dominant, because definitively marked as colonialists at a time when, precisely, the spirit of trusteeship is more than never denounced and pointed out. Even more than the United Kingdom, France, with the Algerian conflict of which it does not seem to find the way out, is seen as a colonial empire of 22_Mars_1956_SEDDOUKthe past.Leaders_of_July_14_1958_Revolution
  • This is the triumph of the Soviet Union. The Russians are gaining prestige and strengthening ties with Egypt, providing them with financial assistance and military logistics. Hashemite Iraq becomes pronasserian; Sudan gains independence; Lebanon is shaken by a mini civil war between Christians loyal to the West and Muslims facing the Arab States; Syria is also undergoing upheaval and under Soviet protection, entering Egypt with the circle of non-aligned countries.

The Suez campaign ensures relative peace for Israel for about ten years before returning to war.

Bundesarchiv_B_145_Bild-F010324-0002,_Flughafen_Köln-Bonn,_Adenauer,_de_Gaulle-croppedFrance in 1967 tries to return to the international scene by turning a corner for the benefit of the new Arab nations and to the detriment of the old friendship of twenty years with Israel, of a much smaller political weight. As illustrated by General de Gaulle’s reply on the eve of the Six-Day War to the Israeli representatives who came to secure French support:

  • Abba_Eban_1970Abba Eban[5], Israel’s Foreign Minister, reminds General de Gaulle (at the Elysee Palace) of the clear commitments France had made to his country at the UN in 1957. In a brash tone, De Gaulle told him answers: « Yes but it was in 1957. Today we live in 1967. » Michel Bar-Zohar comments in his memoirs: « In one sentence, he canceled the commitments of France ».

 

This position is concretized in the facts:MIRAGE_IIIC_0003

  • On June 2, 1967 [6], three days before the outbreak of hostilities, the same information appears on the teleprinters of all the agencies of the world: the French government informally suspends the delivery of arms to the State of Israel. […]
  • De Gaulle is naive enough to believe that his action will have a pedagogical effect on the Israelis; deprived of arms supply, they will not make war. Which is an error of judgment. His attitude has resulted in nothing more than precipitating things, because Israel will be forced to hasten a surprise attack to overcome its military inferiority. […]
  • During an interview with the British Prime Minister, De Gaulle told the latter, using his usual arrogance: « There is no reason for France, and I would even suggest for the United Kingdom United, to ruin its relations with the Arabs under the pretext that public opinion (of the time …) experiences « superficial sympathies » for Israel, because it is a small country with an unfortunate history.

Israel is therefore alone and without any ally now. The United States will soon find it interesting to take the place left vacant by France. In the meantime, Israel is conducting its first war without any ally as a nation and against Arab armies heavily armed by the USSR:

  • On June 5, 1967 [7], at 7:45, the night has not yet fully withdrawn. 193 planes take off from their base in Israel and rush to the sky. Only 12 aircraft will protect Israeli airspace for the duration of the mission. […]
  • (While the Egyptian pilots are on a break, a flood of fire falls on the Egyptian airfields). One after the other, the planes (Egyptian) explode under the rocket that touches them and ignite immediately. […]
  • When Israeli air force planes retreat, the toll is heavy: 360 aircraft destroyed by napalm, sixteen airfields in ruins across Egypt. The tracks are disemboweled. […] The Egyptian air force, but also Syrian and Jordanian, is only a memory: on the proposal of General Amer, the Arab allies had agreed to put their fleet at the disposal of Nasser. […]
  • This scenario, President Gamal Abdel Nasser had not planned. As Pierre Hazan writes, « He will not recover from it ». […]
  • On June 5, 1967, at 10:15 am, three hours after the attack, Israel made itself master of the sky. Now, it is the turn of land units to enter the scene. […]
  • The Israeli army is young, the soldiers are between 18 and 23 years old for the older ones. This war is theirs, they want to show the elders that in turn they are able to defend the country. […]
  • The war on the ground begins.
  • Michel Bar-Zohar notes in his campaign newspaper: « The army has no choice. This time, we can no longer surprise the Egyptians. We can not come on their backs, break their side, break them by an unexpected attack. We must hit them in the face, where they wait for the shot. Throw on the tanks, cannons and machine guns that are carefully pointed in the direction from which the Jews are coming « .

Israel won in six days, a brilliant victory over the Arab armies:

  • Almost total destruction [8] of enemy aviations, advanced tanks in Sinai and the West Bank, and finally conquest of the Golan Heights. The war lasts six days and ends in rout for Arab armies that have lost more than 70% of their heavy armament and more than ten thousand men (700 for Israel). Israel is left with a formidable strategic wall: the Sinai desert and the Gaza Strip (38,000 km2), the Golan (700 km2) and the West Bank (5,800 km2). Not to mention, of course, the old city of Jerusalem and its suburbs which are unilaterally integrated within the boundaries of the « new unified municipality ».

1024px-6_Day_War-Amos

The Israeli victory surprises the world. From the depths of exile, the Jew was considered incapable of defending himself. On the other hand, the Six-Day War reveals an army that now seems invincible and that perfectly masters the art of war, as one observer observes:

  • The victory of the Israelis challenges the international military world to a high level of decision. General Beaufre who attended the Suez campaign in 1956, wanted to understand how the Jews had led this war. He is not the only one in this case, many officers were animated by the same curiosity; there are two Egyptian generals who asked to visit the scene of the clash between the two armies.
  • In the number 950 of Paris Match dated June 24, 1967, the French general explains his approach: « The public followed with passion the violent crisis of the Middle East. The lightning war that took place there can be well understood in broad outline. One question, however, remained unanswered. What are the causes of such a rapid and complete victory? […] I flew over the battlefield and, thanks to the warm welcome I received, I am able to present an initial overview of this military victory. « 
  • General Beaufre in his analysis discards that it would be a « happy blow » according to his expression. In all three campaigns (Sinai, Jordan, Syria), at all levels, it is rather a high military quality of the Israeli army. […]

The dazzling victory of the Israeli army in the six-day war that confirms the found military talent of the Jewish armies already expressed during the war of independence and the Suez campaign justifies the psalmist’s findings for the beginning of the psalm of this generation :

(extract of the psalm 144 associated to this generation, verse 1 )

  • Of David. Blessed is the Lord, my Rock, Who trains my hands for battle, my fingers for war.

Reunited Jerusalem.

 Zeev_Jabotinsky_Zionist_CongressIf the 1948 war of independence was a victory for Israel, the result on Jerusalem was mixed because Israel could save only West Jerusalem and lost the old city.

Since [9] 1929, the British had banned the shofar on the Western Wall (also called the Wailing Wall) on Yom Kippur. Every year Jabotinsky deliberately violated this rule until he was arrested and killed by the British in 1942.

shofar wall shutterstock_2441498In October 1943, Begin took up the torch. Thus even during the blackest period of Jewish history, the Jews’ attachment to Jerusalem remained as strong as ever. Palestine’s partition plan was approved by the UN on November 29, 1947, and resulted, following the Arab’s refusal, in violent fighting between Arabs and Jews in Jerusalem even before the end of the British mandate. carnage involving both sides.

Jerusalem_convoy

The Arabs besiege Jerusalem and harass the supplies from their stronghold of Castel. The siege will be broken after 6 months, in June 1948, thanks to the opening of the « road of Burma ». West Jerusalem is part of the new state because connected to this road to the rest of the country during the first truce decreed by the UN. The Israelis had rejected several names for their new state such as Judea or Zion, because they were too tied to Jerusalem that they were not sure they could keep even partially.

The English [10] during World War I seized the opportunity to ally with Abdallah Ibn Hussein to lead an Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire which was then allied with the Germans and thus in the enemy camp of England.

Lawrence of Arabia is sent by the English to assist him. The father of Abdallah is Hussein, Sherif of sheriffs and emir of Mecca, the greatest potentate of Arabia, Hashemite ruler and direct descendant of the prophet. By uniting with the English, Hussein demands a Hashemite empire that encompasses all of Arabia, Syria, Palestine and Iraq. Hussein controlled only a few thousand warriors, a large part of Arabia was under the control of rival chieftains like that of the Saud, enemy of the Sharif.

In fact, the former territories of the Ottoman Empire had already been the subject of a very different division by a secret agreement between French and English: the Sykes-Picot Agreement. At the end of the war, the old Ottoman provinces were redistributed, Faycal, one of Hussein’s sons, obtained kingship over Iraq, the other son Abdallah sought to take over Arabia, but defeated by the Saudi leader, he fell back and « contented himself » with the current Jordan, which had never before been a country or a region apart, which Churchill offered him: « Emir Abdallah is in Transjordan, where I (it is Churchill who expresses it) placed it on a Sunday afternoon in Jerusalem « .

1024px-AbuKishmeetingAbdallah settles there with thirty officers and two hundred Bedouins. Abdallah, who became king of Jordan, initially signed a non-aggression pact with the Israelis. He ended up participating in the adventure of the Arab League against the Jewish state, especially trying to integrate Jerusalem into his kingdom. He launched his nine thousand strong Arab legion, the best formation of the Arab League, against the Holy City.

1024px-Flickr_-_Government_Press_Office_(GPO)_-_The_Shrine_of_the_Book

Between [11] the 1948 war and the 1967 war – that of 1957 did not concern Jerusalem – the Israelis made their part of the city, West Jerusalem, a modern city. At the same time, Abdallah materialized his dominion by being crowned King of Jerusalem by the Coptic Bishop in November 1950, then King of Palestine on 1 December by renaming his territory the United Kingdom of Jordan. It is in the heart of Jerusalem that he will be assassinated on July 20, 1951. His son Talal succeeded him but abdicated to the benefit of his son, the grandson of Abdallah, Hussein August 12, 1952, supported among others by the British .Churchill_portrait_NYP_45063

Churchill, who at nearly eighty years had taken over the reins of the British government, slipped to one of his representatives:

  • « You should leave Jerusalem to the Jews – they are the ones who made it famous. « 

While the old city and therefore the Temple Mount, seat of the Al Aqsa Mosque, was so under Jordanian rule and therefore under Muslim domination, it did not engender passion found today while it is under Israeli domination, and therefore non-Muslim:

  • Jerusalem_temple_Mt_1912But the Temple Mount itself was calm. « Very few Muslims came to visit the Haram, » said Oleg Grabar, a specialist in Jerusalem, who discovered the city in those years.

Thus King Hussein did restore the lead blanket of the dome of the rock, which had turned for centuries to a dull verdigris, on the occasion of the visit of Pope Paul VI in 1964. Visit which revived Christian tourism in Jerusalem, which prompted the Arabs to demolish their villas in favor of horrible hotels.

On the eve of the Six Day War, the Israelis had advised the Jordanians not to return to the conflict by assuring them that in this case they would not attack them either. But when the Israelis attacked the Egyptians by surprise on June 5, the latter instead of announcing their losses told the Jordanians that they were victorious and had just destroyed the Israeli air force …Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin (front) exits from the aircraft upon his arrival in the United States. He is accompanied by Israeli Foreign Minister Moshe Dayan (rear).

At 11.15, Jordan entered the conflict by engaging its artillery against the Jewish side of Jerusalem.

 

Despite the success of the Israeli army, Jordanians refuse the proposed ceasefire. The Israelis are winning expensive first victories in lives on both sides, as Hussein, fearing to lose the Old City, is proposing a ceasefire, but too late. Dayan was reluctant to return to the Old City because of political considerations until June 7 when the UN Council is preparing to declare a ceasefire. Menachem Begin then wants to urgently start the battle for the recovery of the Old City. Dayan complies by ordering Rabin to take « the most difficult and coveted goal of the war. »

PikiWiki_Israel_47231_Revealing_of_the_Western_Wall_The offensive resumes:

  • PikiWiki_Israel_43449_Israel_Defense_Forces rogneColonel Motta Gour [13], commander of the parachute units, harangued his troops: « We occupy the heights overlooking the Old City. In a few moments, we will enter. The ancient city of Jerusalem, which we dream and have coveted for generations – we will be the first to enter! The Jewish nation is waiting for our victory! Good luck ! « 
  • At 9.45 am, the Israeli Shermans fired on the Lions’ gate, destroying the bus blocking the entrance. They opened a breach under the heavy fire of the Jordanians. The paratroopers rushed into the Via Dolorosa and Colonel Gour Jerusalem-dung_gateled a unit on the Temple Mount. « You are in a half-track after two days of fighting as the gunshots continue to fill the air, and suddenly you enter this vast open space that everyone has seen in photo, » Arik Amon wrote. intelligence officer. And although I’m not religious, I do not think there was one man who was not allowed to get emotional. Something very special had just happened. After a skirmish with Jordanian soldiers, Gour’s voice crackled in the radio: « We hold the 1024px-PikiWiki_Israel_10113_rabbi_shlomo_goren_square_in_petakh_tikvaTemple Mount! « 
  • Flickr_-_Israel_Defense_Forces_-_Life_of_Lt._Gen._Yitzhak_Rabin,_7th_IDF_Chief_of_Staff_in_photos_(14)Meanwhile, on Mount Zion, a company of the Jerusalem Brigade blew up a gate from the Gate of Zion and entered the Armenian quarter, tumbled down the steep hill, and rejoined the Jewish quarter; at the same moment, soldiers of the same unit crossed the Dung Gate. All converged on the Western Wall – except the unity of Gour which, from the Temple Mount, did not find the way; but an old Arab obligingly told them the Mughrabi Gate, and the paratroopers arrived at the same time as the two other companies on the Holy Place. With his shofar in one hand and the Torah in the other, Rabbi Schlomo Goren, chief chaplain to the Israeli army, headed for the wall and sang the Kaddish death prayer as the soldiers prayed, applauded, cried, and were dancing, and some sang the new hymn of the city, « Golden Jerusalem ». […] « 
  • « It was the most intense moment of my life, » Rabin said. For years, I had secretly nurtured the dream of being able to play a part in making the Western Wall to the Jewish people. Now this dream had come true and suddenly, I wondered why, of all men, it was to me that this privilege fell « 

The continuation of the psalm illustrates the capture of Jerusalem, a city in which God is called to reside, while echoing the questioning of the heroes of this one:

(extract of the psalm 144 associated to this generation, verses 2 and 3 )

  • My kindness and my fortress, my high tower and my deliverer, my shield in Whom I take refuge, Who flattens peoples beneath me.
  • O Lord, what is man that You should know him, the son of man, that You should consider him?

Nearly 2,000 years ago, the Romans besieged the Jews in Jerusalem and destroyed the second temple. From the city of Jerusalem had passed into many hands, and the Jews could only be spectators of these changes of ownership. This generation is the first of the exile who sees the Jewish people again become owners of the Temple Mount and where Jews can pray before the wall called the Wailing Wall, which this time belongs to them again.

It is obvious that this return of the Jewish people to their land and the resumption of Jerusalem echoes the ever-repeated prayer throughout the generations « next year in Jerusalem ». But the Temple Mount does not house the « third » Jewish temple but mosques, especially the Al Aqsa Mosque that prevents reconstruction. Moreover, Rabbi Schlomo Goren had proposed to dynamite the mosque as early as June 7, 1967, but the Israeli leaders did not follow him, thus avoiding the hostile reactions of the Arab world:

  • Dayan [14] saw an Israeli flag float on the dome of the Rock. « I gave the order to withdraw it immediately. Rabin, Flickr_-_Israel_Defense_Forces_-_Life_of_Lt._Gen._Yitzhak_Rabin,_7th_IDF_Chief_of_Staff_in_photos_(15)gasping for breath, looked at the tangle of men exhausted by the fight, his eyes wet with tears, but « the time was not tears – it was a moment of redemption, of hope.
  • Rabbi Goren wanted to hasten the advent of the Messianic era by dynamiting the mosques of the Temple Mount, but General Narkiss stopped him: « Shut up! « 
  • « You’ll get into the history books, » Goren insisted.
  • « I have already inscribed my name in the history of Jerusalem, » replied Narkiss. […]
  • Dayan pondered at length the status of Jerusalem and stopped his own political line. Ten days later, he returned to Al-Aqsa where, sitting in shoes with the Haram Sheikh and ulema, he explained that Jerusalem now belonged to Israel but that the Waaf would retain control of the Temple Mount. The Jews could henceforth go to the Har ha-Bayit, the esplanade of the Mosques, from which they had been banished for two thousand years, but he decreed that they would not have the right to pray there.

Arab_Legion,_Tiferet_Yisrael_synagogue,_May_21,_1948While the Jordanians destroyed almost all the synagogues of Jerusalem in 1948, in 1967, the victorious Jews preserved non-Jewish places of worship and granted complete freedom of worship to all religions except their own.Arab_Legion_soldier_in_ruins_of_Hurva

Despite this, the return of ownership of the Temple Mount to the Jews is in line with all messianic prophecies promising the return of the Jewish people on his land accompanied by the divine presence.

This one (the divine presence) had abandoned the land of Israel during the destruction of the first temple, that of Solomon, by Nebuchadnezzar. This took place during the eighteenth generation, for which the psalmist had initialized the psalm of this generation by recalling the bond of the Lord with his people:

(extract of the Psalm 18 associated with the generation of the years 590 BC to 570 BC, generation of the destruction of the first Temple (Temple of Solomon) in 586 BC., verses 2 to 4 )

  • And he said, « I love You, O Lord, my strength.
  • O Lord, my rock and my fortress and my rescuer; my God, my rock, I will take refuge in Him; my shield and the horn of my salvation, my refuge.
  • With praise I call to the Lord, and from my enemies I will be saved.

There is obviously a strong parallelism between this passage of Psalm 18, which precedes the destruction of the first Temple and consequently the departure of the divine presence of Jerusalem, and the passage of the psalm of this generation that we have just commented following the recovery. from Jerusalem by the Jewish people two thousand and five hundred years later, and which presages both the impending rebuilding of Jerusalem and the return of the divine presence to Jerusalem.

At the eighteenth generation the divine presence had left Jerusalem as indicated by the passage of Psalm 18:

(extract of the Psalm 18 associated with the generation of the years 590 BC to 570 BC, generation of the destruction of the first Temple (Temple of Solomon) in 586 BC., verses 8 to 12 )

  • The earth shook and quaked, the foundations of the mountains did tremble; and they were shaken when He was angered.
  • Smoke went up in His nostrils, and fire out of His mouth did devour; coals flamed forth from Him.
  • And He bent the heavens, and He came down, and thick darkness was under His feet.
  • And He rode on a cherub and did fly; He swooped on the wings of the wind.
  • He made darkness His hiding-place about Him as His booth; the darkness of waters, thick clouds of the skies.

Of course, now that Jerusalem is once again in the hands of the Jewish people after it has been in exile among the nations for two millennia, the psalmist in the following of this generation’s psalm invites the divine presence to return quickly to Jerusalem :

(extract of the psalm 144 associated to this generation, verses 4 to 6 )

  • Man is like a breath; his days are as a fleeting shadow.
  • O Lord, bend Your heavens and descend; touch the mountains and they will smoke.
  • Flash lightning and scatter them; send forth Your arrows and confound them.

The lightnings and arrows evoked in the end of the passage of the psalm of this generation that we have just quoted were already mentioned in the eighteen psalm related to the destruction of the first Temple:

(extract of the Psalm 18 associated with the generation of the years 590 BC to 570 BC, generation of the destruction of the first Temple (Temple of Solomon) in 586 BC., verses 14 and 15 )

  • The Lord thundered from Heaven; and the Most High gave forth His voice with hail and coals of fire.
  • And He sent out arrows and He scattered them; He shot lightning and He discomfited them.

As we have seen for this psalm, if the psalmist had announced at the beginning of the psalm of generation 18 the destruction that came upon Jerusalem and the people of Israel, he goes on to the future resurrection of the people of Israel with his head David, the narrator of the psalms.

Following this parallel in the psalm of this generation of the 1950s and 1960s, David, who is the author, announces the coming realization of the prophecy which he himself had evoked in the psalm of the generation eighteen, that of the destruction of the first Temple and the first exile to Babylon. And so the imminent return of the divine presence among the reunited Jewish people on his land in Jerusalem.

It is obvious that this return of the Jewish people to their land and the resumption of Jerusalem echo the ever-repeated prayer throughout the generations « next year in Jerusalem ». Christians and Muslims must consider this prayer unrealistic, the Jewish people being, according to their theories, a people cursed and condemned to live humiliated within the nations.

The war of 67 is therefore a blow to the dogmas that these religions have defined against the Jews. The reaction is not long in coming, the Christian world and the Muslim world very quickly violently fight the very idea of Jewish land, and that from this generation.

The ebb of nations.

Before the Six Day War, Jews were survivors of history. The Western world, which had been an active or inactive complicity in the six million deaths of the Shoah, could not express the slightest hostile opinion of the Jews, including those living in the land of Israel.

Before this war, the Muslim world, pretending to be a stranger to the carnage of the Second World War, still thought it could defeat the Jewish state by arms and make the land of Israel a Muslim land. What does his leader matter as long as he is a Muslim? The Jews would then be eliminated from Israel or reduced to the minimum portion subject to the Muslim status of dhimmi. The victory of the Israelis in 1967 made the Arab countries lose hope of being able to get rid of this non-Muslim outgrowth by the traditional armed way.

The most spectacular turnaround is that of France. De Gaulle, at the end of the second war, worked to make believe that France, the real France, had not submitted to the Germans, only a handful of « traitors » having made a deal with the enemy.

It is besides a French army (thanks to American benevolence) which frees Paris. If France has a large number of righteous people who have made the right decisions, unfortunately the majority of French people generally approved Petain’s policy during the war.

During the Suez campaign in 1956, the French and the Israelis were allies, It’s the past. De Gaulle, thinking perhaps that the abandonment of the colonies that he led can make his words credible, rewrites history again at a press conference on November 26, 1967:

  • « In favor [18] of the Franco-British expedition of Suez, we had seen, indeed, a state of Israel warlike and determined to expand … That’s why, moreover, the Fifth Republic was with respect to Israel the very special and very close ties that the previous regime had established with that State. »[…]
  • « One could ask oneself indeed, declares De Gaulle, and one wonders even in many Jews, if the establishment of this community on lands which had been acquired under conditions more or less justifiable and in the middle of the peoples Arabs who were fundamentally hostile to it were not going to cause countless, endless frictions and conflicts. »[…]
  • « Some even feared that the Jews, hitherto scattered, who had remained what they had always been, an elite people, self-assured and domineering, did not come, once they were assembled to change into ardent and conquering ambition the very moving wishes they had been forming for nineteen centuries: next year in Jerusalem ».

This statement of General De Gaulle that if it was resumed today by a far-right party would be – rightly – accusations of anti-Semitism, led at the time the reaction of Raymond Aron:ARON Raymond, 1966 © ERLING MANDELMANN ©

  • Aron [19], though removed from his Jewish roots – he says to himself « de-Judaized » – reacts by writing a long article, indignant first as a Frenchman, then as a Jew, this part of him -Although De Gaulle has insulted:
    • « General De Gaulle calls the Jewish people » self-assured and domineering « . To define a people with two adjectives: a statesman declines himself when he resorts to such a process, that of national stereotypes, of racial prejudices, the one of which the regulars of the Coffee of Commerce do not tire and whose psychologists and psychiatrists tirelessly analyze the mechanisms.
    • General de Gaulle lowered himself because he wanted to strike a blow: to explain Israeli imperialism by the same eternal nature, the dominating instinct of the Jewish people. I would say that General de Gaulle knowingly voluntarily opened a new period of Jewish history and perhaps anti-Semitism. Everything becomes possible again. Everything restart. No question, of course, of persecution: only « malevolence ». No time for contempt: the time of suspicion. « 

FOUNTAIN_SQUARE_IN_DOWNTOWN_CINCINNATI_IS_A_PUBLIC_SQUARE_THAT_WORKS_FOR_THE_CITY_AND_ITS_PEOPLE_IN_A_MYRIAD_OF_WAYS..._-_NARA_-_553140

The questioning even of the right to existence of Israel by the representative of the countries of human rights opens a door by which all those who do not dare to display an obvious anti-Semitism will be able to develop an anti-Zionism, a new form of attacking Jews without confessing its anti-Semitism. Thus, closer to us, the declaration of General de Gaulle is emulated. So Edgar Morin in 2002:

  • « It is hard [20] to imagine that a nation of fugitives from the longest-persecuted people in the history of humankind, who have suffered the worst humiliation and contempt, will be able to turn into two generations of domineering people. sure of him, and, with the exception of an admirable minority, a scornful people having satisfaction to humiliate.  » […]
  • « The Jews of Israel, descendants of the victims of an apartheid called ghetto, ghettoize the Palestinians. Jews who were humiliated, oppressed, persecuted, humiliated, despised, persecuted Palestinians. The Jews who were victims of a ruthless order impose their ruthless order on the Palestinians. Jews who are victims of inhumanity rise in terrible inhumanity. The Jews, scapegoats for all ills, make Arafat and the Palestinian Authority scapegoats, responsible for attacks that they are prevented from preventing « .

As Raphael Delpard notes, Raymond Aron’s prediction proved to be just and just right today. Thus, as Edgar Morin does, one begins the reasoning by attacking Israelis to generalize to the Jews.

It is against these new attacks that want to call into question the very existence of Israel and the very existence of the Jews that David solicits divine benevolence in the following of the psalm of this generation:

(extract of the psalm 144 associated to this generation, verses 7 and 8 )

  • Stretch forth hands from above; deliver me and rescue me from great waters, from the hands of foreigners.
  • Whose mouth speaks vanity, and whose right hand is a right hand of falsehood.

The end of a world: Sephardic Jews.

Historically the Sephardic term is relative to Spain just as the term Ashkenazi is relative to Germany.

Since the Inquisition, however, the term Sephardic has gradually changed to include Eastern Jews, while the term Ashkenazi refers to the Jews of the West. So the Sephardic Jews here represent Jews living in Muslim-majority countries like the Maghreb, Egypt, Iran, Iraq and Turkey. I could have annotated this subchapter by referring to « the Jews of the Arab countries » but that would have supposed that these Jews would have been welcomed by the Muslims on their land, which is obviously not consistent with history.

The Bible already evokes the life of the Jews in Egypt, in Mesopotamia in Persia at times when neither Christianity nor Islam existed.

Juifs evangilesIn the same way the Gospels tell the stories of the first Christian communities that emerged from the Jewish communities widely represented around the Mediterranean basin, especially in what is today Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, Libya or Jordan.

Some trace the Jewish presence back to the Maghreb in the time of the Phoenicians, but in any case archeology shows that Jews are widely represented there long before the birth of Christianity and Islam.

Similarly, the Qur’an and related literature tells the story of Jewish communities in the Arabian Peninsula, especially what is now Yemen, Arabia and other Muslim states in the region. One might think that without the development of the Hedjab by the Jewish tribes in the pre-Islamic era, it would have been impossible for the prophet of Islam to bring to the fore the conquering power that took root. This, moreover, to the detriment of these same Jewish tribes.

All these Jewish communities, at least two thousand years old, saw Muslim invading troops arrive on the lands they had occupied for centuries, and that they had often been cleared and suffered the effects of jihad, the holy war. They were thus dispossessed of their lands and their possessions and, if they wished to save their lives, they had to accept the status of dhimmis, the status of sub-men in the land of Islam.

If the Jews were more comfortable than Christians with this status, on the one hand they considered that their true land was the land of Israel and that their descendants would eventually find it.

If we exclude the Islamic-majority countries of Asia, where the Jewish presence is much more discreet, the Jews were part of the history, or even the founding history, of all the Muslim-majority countries around the Mediterranean. south of it from Persia to Egypt.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThis generation sees the disappearance of the Jewish world on lands (become land) of Islam. Unlike the Ashkenazi Jews, this disappearance is not a physical disappearance, although it was programmed jointly by Nazism and radical Islamism, but a great displacement.

This great displacement corresponds to a desire for ethnic cleansing of the Arab world that can accept non-Muslims only if they, in addition to belonging to « legal » religions, agree to be second-class citizens. To this great displacement, this great exodus, was associated with a real desire to erase the Jewish presence, just like what happened in Kosovo.

Tunisia’s independence was achieved with a minimum of combat and under the aegis of visionary personalities such as President Bourguiba. In spite of this, the constitution of this country was made by privileging the Islamic character of its population and denigrating de facto the non-Muslim population, even if this one wanted to consider itself as Tunisian because of its ancestral attachment to this land. For the Jews, to remain in the (so-called) Muslim land, this amounted to accepting a situation of dhimmi or pseudo-dhimmi. What in the twentieth century was no longer acceptable even in « open » countries like Tunisia.

Armenian_Genocide_Museum-Institute_7To revolt against this status is impossible, the fate of the Armenians at the beginning of the century demonstrates it. If the Armenians suffered the first genocide of the twentieth century, it is because the Turks, considering themselves as secular, had applied to this population the rules of the dhimmis: if a dhimmi refuge submission, then he no longer benefits from the « Protection » and is subject to jihad for which he then has no rights, including the right to exist.

The dhimmi regime creates a real subhuman status.

Islam wants to be a stranger to the fate of Jews in Europe and even declare itself an indirect victim of it. Thus the creation of the State of Israel would be a compensation for the Holocaust carried out by the Westerners on the backs of Muslims. The latter would have been idyllic throughout the history of Jewish communities under Muslim rule.

With regard to the Muslim world’s non-responsibility in the Holocaust and its application, it is easy to show that this is not the case.

If the Jews survived in the Islamic world and Palestine, this is not due to a choice of the Arab world but to the German military failures, Stalingrad and Al Alamein. Otherwise it is likely that the Arab world would have largely participated in the implementation of the final solution within it, like the full cooperation of the Mufti of Jerusalem during the Second World War.

On the eve of the Second World War, Europe had a Jewish population (about 10 million) ten times larger than the population of the Arab world (about one million). East and Maghreb included. This while the European population is at most twice as numerous (less than 700 million in 2011) than the population of this Arab area (about 350 million in 2011). This means that Europe despite its anti-Semitism, its massacres and pogroms has welcomed five times more Jews than the Arab world. Now the Jewish population in the Arab world has itself more than doubled in proportion since these territories have been administered, in the form of colonies or protectorates, by the French and the English since the nineteenth century.

This means that Jews were ten times less numerous in the Arab world than in the Christian world when they were often numerous or even majority in these territories before these territories become lands of Islam.

In fact, except for the Abbasid Empire and the Umayyad Spain, Jews have been tolerated in the Arab world only in the limit of their usefulness to occupy the trades prohibited or refused by the Muslims and for their relations through the world.

The regime of dhimmitude installed most of the Jews in the Arab world in an extreme poverty that did not allow them to grow, to which must be added the pogroms and abuses, most of which have surely remained unknown. The Abbasid and Umayyad Spain exceptions were simply due to the fact that true Muslims, excluding the freshly unreliable converts, were in the minority and could not yet impose a strict Islam.

The status of dhimmi is obviously at stake in the under-representation of Jews in Muslim lands, as was already observed in the thirteenth century by a European observer:

  • Jews [23] are dhimmis, that is, they can practice their religion even in a discreet and non-aggressive manner. They are protected by the terms of a pact that ensures their life in exchange for many social and tax constraints. While social segregation proves to be a form of domination and conquest by means other than arms. Social death and tax crushing are weapons of a different nature from the sword, but they are very effective.
  • Indeed, in his historical essay, Eisenbeth reports information extracted from a book by M. de Chénier, consul of France in Morocco in the eighteenth century; he gives a precise estimate of the impact of social discrimination and persecution on Jewish demography in Morocco after the expulsion from Spain: at the beginning of the sixteenth century, there were thirty thousand Jewish families in Morocco. In the eighteenth century, there remained only the twelfth.

Although the final solution was not able to reach the Arab world solely because of German military setbacks, Jews have almost completely disappeared (about [24] 50 000 in 2000, including 25,000 in Iran and 20,000 in Turkey). Europe still hosts more than one million Jews (1,300,000 [25] in 2010, a good part of which originated in the Arab world). This disappearance of Jews from the Arab world is due both to a desire of these countries to become essentially Muslim countries eventually accepting a non-Muslim minority provided that it is subject and « useful ».

The initialization of this purge predates the Israeli-Arab conflict and is rather concomitant with the emergence of Arab nationalist movements, all of which are based on the Islamization of the population.

In Algeria, the Jews had been able to obtain French nationality in the nineteenth century, and not Muslims because a Léon-Blum-micro1936first attempt before the Cremieux decree to the two Jewish and Muslim Ibn_Badis_-_El_Oqbicommunities, had revealed that Muslims were not interested in it. During [29] the Popular Front in France, Leon Blum had tried to launch a project (Blum-Viollette project) that would have allowed the progressive nationalization of Algerians, this project was rejected by the French colonists, eneral De Gaulle tried to reactivate it in 1944 The maxim of Abdelhamid Ben Badis (1889-1940) responds to those among the Algerians who would be tempted by this project is: « The Algerian people is Muslim and is part of the Arab world. Those who have said that he has renounced his origins, or is dead, lie. Those who ask him to assimilate, ask for the impossible … « . Thus, anticolonialism in a majority Muslim country is backed by the affirmation of the Muslim identity of the territories that will claim their independence, thus opening the way to the exclusion and the exile of the Jews of these territories independently of the events to come to Palestine.

In fact, the Muslim world has benefited greatly from the new world order resulting from the Second World War.

The two world wars resulted in the dismantling of the Ottoman Empire and European colonial empires. From this dislocation were born a number of countries including most of today’s Muslim countries. Without world wars, the colonial powers and the Ottoman Empire would have been better able to defend their interests and retain control over these territories. Israel was officially born in 1948, the interests defended by the residual colonial empires were a hindrance to the building of the Jewish state like the white paper limiting Jewish immigration and promoting Arab immigration in the country, as early as the 1930s.

While there have been population movements to and from the Jewish state, they are negligible in relation to the major population movements of the twentieth century and those especially concerning the creation of the new Muslim states. While the attitude of the Israeli pioneers has not been without impact on the exodus of the Palestinian population, it is far from being the main cause. If the Arab countries had not blindly followed the ambitions of the Mufti of Jerusalem worthy heir of Nazism, there would have been no « Nakba ». But on the contrary a Judeo-Muslim symbiosis in the Middle East as desired by many Muslims in Palestine who were the first victims of the mufti.

This symbiosis did not take place neither in Israel / Palestine nor in the Arab world which preferred to a cohabitation profitable to all the monotheistic religions a identitarian closure of which it is the main victim today. This identitarian closure is all the more incomprehensible and anachronistic that today the world has ceased to be centered on Christian and Muslim monotheistic zones of influence and is gradually moving towards Asia where this influence is only very partial. and very limited.

In fact, the Islamic world can not blame the Sephardic Jews for settling in the land of Israel because it was part of most of the countries of origin of the Sephardic Jews of the Ottoman Empire in which the migrations of region to another were legitimate. Without these migrations, the number of Muslims in the land of Israel would be much lower than it is today, because many so-called Palestinian Muslims are from other parts of the Ottoman Empire not being implanted in the current Israel (West Bank included) only for a few generations and often in support of the country’s Zionist development.

The immigration of the Sephardic Jews being difficult to contest, remains that of the Ashkenazi Jews, the first to settle flee Tsarist Russia and its massacres. If the Arab world and its supporters around the world consider this European contribution in the East illegitimate, no one calls into question emigrations of the same nature when they concern Muslim populations.

Pagans [48] converted to Christianity in the eleventh century, the Circassians converted to Islam in the seventeenth century under the influence of the Crimean Tatars.

They [49]  were given the news during the Olympics of Sochi 2014, where they lived: After a century of resistance to Tsarist imperialism, at the cost of the lives of 800,000 of their own, the twelve Circassian tribes are in danger. part exterminated in Sochi, by Alexander II, May 21, 1864.A million of them are then pushed to exodus to the Ottoman Empire, among which 200,000 will die of hunger, disease or fatigue. Circassian World’s research also identifies 100,000 of them in Jordan as well as in Syria, a few thousand in Israel, Libya and Lebanon, and others in Europe (around 40,000) and in the United States. (at least 5,000).In Jordan, the survivors arrived in waves from 1878. Legend has it that they founded Amman, the capital, until then land of Bedouin tribes – the Jordanian kingdom was instituted in 1946. The Circassians erected farming villages on Bedouin lands in the Jabal Amman valleys, where many caravans pass. With around 100,000 members, the circus community today represents 1.5% of the population. It is considered one of the 56 nationalities of the Hashemite Kingdom, which gives it three seats in Parliament.

While many dispute the legitimacy of the State of Israel, the Jewish State, officially re-established in 1947, no one disputes the legitimacy of Jordan founded in 1946 as a consolation prize to Abdallah I and whose population is same outcome of many immigrants including European immigrants. This concession to Abdallah 1st son of Hussein Ben Ali, Cherif of Mecca « compensated » for the loss of the Arabian peninsula that he coveted that fell to the Saud dynasty.

The fact that many countries become lands of Islam is in keeping with the divine promises made to Ishmael, who is traditionally considered the patriarch of the Arab world. So when Agar has to leave Abraham:

  • And God [50] said to Abraham, « Be not displeased concerning the lad and concerning your handmaid; whatever Sarah tells you, hearken to her voice, for in Isaac will be called your seed.
  • But also the son of the handmaid I will make into a nation, because he is your seed. »

Promise directly confirmed to Agar:

  • And God [51] heard the lad’s voice, and an angel of God called to Hagar from heaven, and said to her, « What is troubling you, Hagar? Fear not, for God has heard the lad’s voice in the place where he is.
  • Rise, pick up the lad and grasp your hand upon him, for I shall make him into a great nation.

If the promise made to Abraham and Agar is fully realized after the Second World War, the promise made to the people of Israel also, since to this generation, the people of Israel regain sovereignty over their land and especially over Jerusalem.

This sovereignty, which the Muslim world contests, is also affirmed in the Koran, including the present Jordan:

  • We made [52] the people who were abased (by the Egyptians: the Hebrews) the heirs to the east and west of the land which We had blessed, and your Lord’s best word [of promise] was fulfilled for the Children of Israel because of their patience

The Koran also confirms the return of the people of Israel to their land:

  • After [53] him We said to the Children of Israel, ‘Take up residence in the land, and when the occasion of the other [promise] comes,1 We shall gather you in mixed company.’2
    • 1: Or ‘when the promise of the Hereafter comes.’
    • 2: Or ‘We shall bring you all together.’ Or ‘We shall bring you from all places.’

Despite this, the return of Jews to their land is denied by the Muslim world. This one evokes the illegitimacy of this return by forgetting his own complicity in the final solution and its implication to eject the Jews of the lands that they occupied for centuries and millenia in the North of Africa and the Middle East. Not asking the same questions about the legitimacy of the occupation of the lands of Islam, the Muslim world seeks to use its power, men and means to counter the return of the Jewish people on his land.

It is this threat to the land of Israel found with reunified Jerusalem that the following of this generation’s psalm evokes:

(extract of the psalm 144 associated to this generation, verses 9 to 11 )

  • O God, I shall sing a new song for You; with a psaltery and a ten-stringed harp, I shall play music for You.
  • Who gives salvation to kings, Who delivers David His servant from an evil sword.
  • Deliver me and rescue me from the hands of foreigners, whose mouth speaks vanity and whose right hand is a right hand of falsehood.

Despite this threat, this generation sees the renewal of the Jewish people on their land.

The rebirth of a land: Eretz Israel.

knesset shutterstock_8699485

passeport israelien shutterstock_69093052The new State of Israel was officially born in 1948. The beginning of this generation, of the 1950s and 1960s, was marked by the vote in 1950 by the Knesset, the parliament of the new Jewish state, the Law of Return which authorizes every Jew to settle in Israel and become a citizen.

PikiWiki_Israel_19643_Immigration_to_Israel

This marks the rebirth of the land of Israel:

  • PikiWiki_Israel_46809_Camps_for_immigrantsThe liquidation  [54]  of the Mandate and the advent of the sovereign state open the country to mass immigration. From 1948 to 1977, the country absorbs more than 1,600,000 immigrants; with the 850,000 due to natural growth, the population quadruples. The bulk of this wave submerges the state in its first years of existence, which makes the burden all the more heavy to bear. One hundred thousand immigrants land in the first six months, then in 1949 an additional 240,000, followed by 170,000 in 1950 and 175,000 the year after. Thus, in 1953, the population doubled again, then tripled three years later, to reach 1,670,000 souls. […]
  • At the same time, for the first time in the history of Yishuv, the eastern communities of North Africa and the Levant PikiWiki_Israel_144_Kibbutz_Harvest_Celebration_חג_ביכורים_בקיבוץare on their way to the Promised Land. […]
  • As early as February 1951, a « new economic policy » turned the tide: most restrictions were abolished, and the government tried to control inflation by cutting spending and a series of successive devaluations. […] Slowly, painfully, the economy begins to stabilize and then grow. […] GNP grew at about 10% a year – one of the highest growth rates in the world. […]
  • The government is able to set national priorities in the long term, without being bound by immediate economic imperatives. Kibbutzim are founded in strategic areas, despite all economic logic, development cities grow in the desert and mountains of Galilee for the purposes of immigration and dispersal of the population, huge industrial enterprises are launched where orangers israel shutterstock_144786526private capital would never dare to venture.
  • The best example of this proactive policy is agriculture, a priority sector for all in the first decade. It was in fact to feed a growing population, to fix the immigrants on the ground and thus prevent a harmful urban concentration, but also to make it less vulnerable, by populating them, the borders of the State. Between 1948 and 1953, 354 villages including 251 Moshavim and 96 Kibbutzim were founded throughout the country, a hundred more until 1972. In ten years, the cultivated area increased by 150%, the irrigated area by 400% and towards In the late 1950s, the country produced enough eggs, poultry, dairy products, vegetables and fruit for its own consumption.

Thus the redemption of the land of Israel that finds its people and offers them its abundance again is celebrated in the end of the psalm of this generation:

(extract of the psalm 144 associated to this generation, verses 12 to 15 )

  • For our sons are like saplings, grown up in their youth; our daughters are like cornerstones, praised as the form of the Temple.
  • Our corners are full, supplying from harvest to harvest; our flocks produce thousands, yea, ten thousands in our streets.
  • Our princes are borne; there is no breach nor rumor going out, nor is there a cry in our squares.
  • Praiseworthy is the people that has this; praiseworthy is the people whose God is the Lord.

 

help-bouton-fotolia_61356253_subscription_monthly_mButton aus zwei Puzzlestücken zeigt E-Mail Kontakt 

[1] Acronym of the Hebrew « Tsva Hagana LeIsrael » is in English: « Israel Defense Forces (IDF) »

[2] According to: Raphael Delpard: « The Six Days War » and (collective work: Antoine Germa / Benjamin Lellouch / Evelyne Patlagean): « The Jews in History ». Alain Dieckhoff’s chapter: « Israel in its regional and international environment ». (p.469). (French: Raphaël Delpard / « La guerre des six jours », Antoine Germa/Benjamin Lellouch/Evelyne Patlagean/ « Les Juifs dans l’histoire ». Chapitre de Alain Dieckhoff: « Israël dans son environnement régional et international  ». (p. 469))

[3] From: Raphael Delpard: « The Six-Day War ». (French: « La guerre des six jours »).

[4] Raphaël Delpard : « The Six-Day War ». (French: « La guerre des six jours ». (p. 34 à 35) )

[5] Raphaël Delpard : « The Six-Day War ». (French:« La guerre des six jours ». (p. 66) )

[6] Raphaël Delpard : « The Six-Day War ». (French:« La guerre des six jours ». (p. 70,71) )

[7] Raphaël Delpard : « The Six-Day War ». (French: « La guerre des six jours ». (p. 72 à 75))

[8] (Antoine Germa Collective / Benjamin Lellouch / Evelyne Patlagean): « The Jews in History ». Alain Dieckhoff’s chapter: « Israel in its regional and international environment ». (French: « Les Juifs dans l’histoire ». Chapitre d’Alain Dieckhoff: « Israël dans son environnement régional et international  ». (p. 643) ).

[9] From: Simon Sebag Montefiore: « Jerusalem ». and Renée Neher-Bernheim: « Jewish History of the Revolution to the State of Israel ». (French: Simon Sebag Montefiore / « Jérusalem » et Renée Neher-Bernheim / « Histoire juive de la Révolution à l’Etat d’Israël »).

[10] From: Simon Sebag Montefiore: « Jerusalem », Chapter: « Arab Revolt, Balfour Declaration, 1916-1917 » and « Winners and Spoils ». (French: « Jérusalem », Chapitre : « Révolte arabe, déclaration Balfour, 1916-1917 » et « Vainqueurs et dépouilles ». (p. 478 à 517) )

[11] From: Simon Sebag Montefiore: « Jerusalem ». Chapters: « Divided » and « Six Days ». (French: « Jérusalem ». Chapitres : « Divisée » et « les six jours ». (p. 574 à 583) )

[12] From: Simon Sebag Montefiore: « Jerusalem ». Chapter: « Six Days ». (French: « Jérusalem ». Chapitres : « les six jours ». (p. 588 à 590) )

[13] Simon Sebag Montefiore: « Jerusalem ». Chapter: « Six Days ». (French: « Jérusalem ». Chapitre : « les six jours ». (p. 590,591) )

[14] Simon Sebag Montefiore: « Jerusalem ». Chapter: « Six Days ». (French: « Jérusalem ». Chapitre : « les six jours ». (p. 591,592) )

[18] Quoted by Raphael Delpard: « The Six-Day War ». (French: « La Guerre des Six jours ». (p. 106,107) )

[19] Raphael Delpard: « The Six-Day War ». (French: « La Guerre des Six jours ». (p. 107,108))

[20] Quoted by Raphael Delpard: « The Six-Day War ». (French:« La Guerre des Six jours ». (p. 164) )

[23] (led by) Schmuel Trigano: « The exclusion of Jews from Arab countries ». Chapter of Ruth Toledano Attias: « Antisemitism in Morocco at the beginning of the twentieth century ». (French: « L’exclusion des Juifs des pays arabes ». Chapitre de Ruth Toledano Attias: « L’antisémitisme au Maroc au début du XXe siècle» )

[24] According to: Michel Abitbol: « History of the Jews, from Genesis to our days » (French: « Histoire des Juifs, de la Genèse à nos jours » (tableau page : 630) ).

[25] According to: wikipedia / Jews and Judaism in Europe

[29] Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blum-ViolletteProject

[48] From: http://igor.hagondokoff.perso.sfr.fr/circassien.html

[49] From : http://www.slate.fr/sports/82559/tcherkesses-circassiens-sotchi

[50] Bereishit – Genesis – Chapter 21, verses 12 and 13.

[51] Bereishit – Genesis – Chapter 21, verses 17 and 18.

[52] QURAN, Chapter 7 The Elevations / Al-A’raf, verse 137 (Al-A’raf: elevated place between Paradise and Hell).

[53] QURAN, Chapter 17 The Night Journey / Al-Isra , verse 104

[54] Elie Barnavi: « A modern history of Israel ». (French: « Une histoire moderne d’Israël ». (p. 121 à 125) )