In the previous psalm, the title referred to the episode of I SAMUEL, when David fleeing Saul is in the hands of Akhich, king of Gath.
- The  hundred years after his reign (of Hadrian), that is to say the time of the last Antonines and Severos, represent from the point of view of relations between the Empire and Christianity on the one hand, the Judaism of the other, a calm period. On the Christian side, local persecutions but, apart from the case of Lyon in 177, no very significant events. On the Jewish side, the most complete calm succeeds the storm of 135. Under Antoninus, the two religions enjoy the same benevolence, Marcus Aurelius, emperor and Stoic, has little more sympathy for the one than for the other. He despises Christians, who die by pure obstinacy, playing tragedy. The Jewish turbulence reminds him, in worse, the Barbarians of the Danube. But neither were seriously worried during his reign and his actions. He represses the denunciation with still more rigor, if we believe Tertullian, than his predecessors. Commodus, indifferent to the affairs of the state and his duties as sovereign, is for both religions a tolerant emperor. The Severans, African, of Semitic affinities, still accentuated by the marriages, are less preoccupied than their predecessors of the strict Roman tradition. Very accessible to the religious influences of the East, they are the proven friends of the Jews, who have paid tribute to their kindness. “Judaecos plurinum dilexerunt,” says Septimius Severus and Caracalla St. Jerome, referring to the opinion of the rabbis themselves. Christians have no advantage in complaining about them: just as Caracalla has excellent relations with the Jewish patriarch, Julia Mammaea discusses theology with Origen. Everything happens, as if the emperors deliberately held the balance between the two cults. Septimius Severus, forbidding proselytism of the Jews, forbids the Christians at the same time, but without seeming to enforce this edict with more energy and obstinacy in one case than in the other.
- But  the equilibrium thus achieved for a century (until the reign of Septimius Severus) between the two religions, in favor of a general tolerance, was subsequently definitively broken in favor of Judaism. For Christians, the period of anarchy that begins with the death of Severus Alexander (222-235) and subsequent attempts at restoration marks the advent of a policy of active intolerance: the era of great persecution begins . Towards the Jews, on the contrary, imperial benevolence will not be denied. Even their propaganda, as we shall see, does not appear to have been seriously impeded during the third century. Thus, in the space of a hundred years, the reciprocal situation of the two religions before the imperial authority was totally reversed. The hopes which may have arisen in the beginning, among Christian apologists, of the difficulties of the Jews were disappointed. Under Hadrian, Judaism was the enemy, and the church might have thought for a moment that it would reap the benefit of this situation. From Decius, it is to Christians that the Empire declares war. In the meantime the Jews were quick to return to grace. This is done under the Antonines, while Christians are not yet explicitly banned from the Empire.
(extract of the psalm 57 associated to this generation, verse 2 to 12 )
- Be gracious to me, O God, be gracious to me, because my soul took refuge in You, and in the shadow of Your wings I will take refuge until the destruction passes.
- In the process of writing the Mishnah, the Jews, under the direction of Rabbi Yehuda Ha Nassi (135/220, Nassi from 170 onwards) will be locked in a spiritual envelope that will allow them to cross the centuries despite numerous attacks. of this material world.
- I will call upon the Most High God, upon the God Who completes [what He promised] for me.
- He will send from Heaven and save me from the disgrace of him who yearns to swallow me up forever; God will send His kindness and His truth.
- My soul is among lions; I lie among men who are aflame; their teeth are [like] spears and arrows, and their tongue is [like] a sharp sword.
- David recalls the strength that the Jewish people find in this spirituality that will allow them to face the most formidable enemies.
- Be exalted above the heavens, O God; over all the earth be Your glory.
- They prepared a net for my steps, he bent down my soul; they dug a pit before me, they will fall into it forever.
- Early Christianity disassociated itself from Judaism believing it to be moribund after the two wars against Rome (66 AD and Bar Kokheba). This is a miscalculation, because right now, Judaism shows its renewed vivacity as Christians prepare to face Rome in turn. This will be found throughout the centuries, for whatever the harshness of adversity, the Jews will always stand in front of the stage to show that God does not abandon them despite appearances.
- My heart is steadfast with God, my heart is steadfast; I will sing, yea, I will sing praises.
- Awaken, my honor; awaken [me], lyre and harp; I will awaken the dawn.
- I will thank You among the peoples, O Lord; I will sing Your praises among the kingdoms.
- For Your kindness is great up to the heavens, and Your truth is up to the skies.
- Be exalted above the heavens, O God, over all the earth be Your glory.
- It is in these conditions that David renews his faith in God. He knows that at the end of time (dawn), the election of the Jewish people will eventually be recognized by the nations who, joining the people of Israel, will give thanks to their creator.
 Marcel Simon / Vérus Israël / Chapter “Rome, Judaism and Christianity” (French: “Vérus Israël”/Chapitre « Rome, Judaïsme et Christianisme » (p. 129/130) ).
 Marcel Simon / Vérus Israël / Chapter “Rome, Judaism and Christianity” (French: “Vérus Israël”/Chapitre « Rome, Judaïsme et Christianisme » (p. 130) ).