Al Mu’tasim, brother of Al Ma’mûn continues the strict religious policy of his brother. He inaugurates the period known as the caliphs of Samara. From  from 836 until 892, the Abbasid caliphs who felt the need to remove from Baghdad their stirring Turkish “guard”, badly seen by the population, decided to live a hundred kilometers to the north , a new royal city, that of Samara. The short reign of Al Wathiq, son of Al Mu’tasim, will not bring about any noticeable change.
On the side  of the Christian empire of the West, this generation is marked by the end of reign of Louis Le Pieux (“the pious”, 814-840) and the dislocation of the empire of Charlemagne between three of the sons of Louis. Louis is an undisputed emperor until 825. From this date, the empire is undermined by quarrels of succession, and the imperial power weakens. These quarrels lead to the definitive division of the empire in 843.
- The action of Agobard  will find an extension in his successor on the episcopal seat of Lyon, Amolon. On his initiative, the council of Meaux and Paris, in 845-846, submitted to the king’s approval a real “status of the Jews”. In his writing also come several texts against the possession of slaves by Jews, including, in addition to the “Constitution” of Constantine and the “Novelle” of Theodosius II, extracts from letters of Gregory the Great and the canon 16 from Mâcon.
- Twenty  years later (after the efforts of Agobard to obtain a separation between Jews and Christians from the Carolingian kings), his successor (Agobard) Amolon will reiterate and reinforce these exhortations: “… cursing the infidelity Jews and seeking to protect the Christian people from their contagion, I have publicly asked three times that our faithful depart from them, that no Christian serve them in cities or villages, leaving them to provide them. works with the help of their pagan slaves; I then forbade to taste their food and their drinks. And I have published several other harsh orders, in order to wrest the evil with the root and to imitate the example of our pious pastor, master and predecessor Agobard “… The bishops Hincmar of Reims, Vanilo de Sens and Rodolphe de Bourges lend a helping hand to Amolon, and the Council of Meaux requires in 848 the application of ancient canonical decisions and edicts of Theodore II.
With the advent of Al Mutawakkil on the Abbasid regime at the end of this generation comes the onset of discriminatory measures for Jews, especially in dress. This will be taken up later in Christian Europe. Closer to home, Nazi Germany will take over this measure. By demanding a free Germany of Jews, Germany will also follow the example of the first Muslims who had done the same for the Arabian Peninsula. This perhaps explains the admiration of their leaders for Islam.
It is under this name that as Assaf and Hêman, he attends the new transfer of the ark during the inauguration of the temple in Jerusalem by Solomon. When quoted during the reign of Josiah (presumably for the service passed on to his descendants), his prophetic ability is recalled.
Ethan in this psalm therefore takes stock of a millennium of Jewish life since the 39th generation which marks the revolt of the Maccabees against the Greek hold. For a thousand years Jews have been fighting to stay within the divine covenant and go from defeat to defeat.
(extract of the psalm 89 associated to this generation, verses 1 to 53 )
- maskil of Ethan the Ezrahite.
- The kindnesses of the Lord I shall sing forever; to generation after generation I shall make known Your faithfulness, with my mouth.
- Ethan, despite the doubts that he evokes later, indicates that he does not put back his fidelity, whatever the events to come.
- For I said, « Forever will it be built with kindness; as the heavens, with which You will establish Your faithfulness. »
- I formed a covenant with My chosen one; I swore to David My servant.
- Until eternity, I shall establish your seed, and I shall build your throne for all generations forever.
- Ethan recalls the commitment to David’s throne, all the more so because Psalm thirty-nine was written by David with Ethan (Yedutun) as a witness.
- And the heavens acknowledge Your wonder, O Lord, also Your faithfulness in the congregation of holy ones.
- For who in the heavens is equal to the Lord? [Who] resembles the Lord among the sons of the mighty?
- God is revered in the great council of the holy ones and feared by all around Him.
- O Lord, God of Hosts, who is like You, O Yah, Who are mighty? And Your faithfulness surrounds You.
- You rule over the pride of the sea; when it raises its waves, You humble them.
- You crushed Rahab like one slain; with the arm of Your might You scattered Your enemies.
- The heaven is Yours, even the earth is Yours; the inhabited earth and the fullness thereof-You founded them.
- North and south-You created them; Tabor and Hermon sing praises in Your name.
- Ethan does not fail to recall the divine power to better condemn his apparent inaction.
- You have an arm with might; Your hand is mighty, Your right hand is high.
- Righteousness and judgment are the basis of Your throne; kindness and truth come before Your countenance.
- Fortunate is the people that know the blasting of the shofar; O Lord, may they walk in the light of Your countenance.
- With Your name they rejoice every day, and with Your righteousness they are exalted.
- For You are the glory of their might, and with Your favor our horns will be raised.
- For our shield is [devoted] to the Lord, and our king to the Holy One of Israel.
- Ethan now evokes God’s commitment to use his power for Israel’s benefit.
- Then You spoke in a vision to Your pious ones, and You said, « I placed help on a mighty man; I lifted up a chosen one from the people.
- I found David My servant, I anointed him with My holy oil.
- With whom My hand will be established, even My arm will strengthen him.
- No enemy will exact from him, neither will an unjust person afflict him.
- And I shall crush his adversaries from before him, and I shall strike his enemies.
- My faithfulness and My kindness will be with him, and with My name his horn will be raised.
- I shall place his hand over the sea, and his right hand over the rivers.
- He will call to Me, ‘You are my Father, my God, and the Rock of my salvation.’
- I, too, shall make him a firstborn, the highest of the kings of the earth.
- I will forever keep My kindness for him, and My covenant will remain true to him.
- And I shall make his seed endure forever, and his throne as the days of the heavens.
- After discussing the divine powers, Ethan recalls God’s commitment to David and his descendants. David is the author of Psalm 39 which initiates the millennium evoked by Ethan. This millennium, contrary to the commitment evoked by Ethan, marks the long decadence of the Jewish people who see themselves from generation to generation more and more at the mercy of their enemies.
- If his sons forsake My Torah and do not walk in My judgments,
- If they profane My statutes and do not keep My commandments,
- I shall punish their transgression with a rod, and their iniquity with stripes.
- But I shall not cancel My kindness from him, and I shall not betray My faith.
- I shall not profane My covenant, neither shall I alter the utterance of My lips.
- One thing have I sworn by My holiness, that I will not fail David.
- His seed will be forever and his throne is like the sun before Me.
- Like the moon, which is established forever, and it is a witness in the sky, eternally true. »
- Even the faults of the Jewish people can not call this commitment into question, and during the millennium, the Jewish people have maintained a firm adherence to the divine covenant. Recall that this millennium was initiated by the resistance to Antiochus that Jews commemorate through the ages by the Chanukah feast.
- But You abandoned and You rejected; You became wroth with Your anointed.
- You abrogated the covenant of Your servant; You profaned his crown to the ground.
- You breached all his fences; You made his fortifications a ruin.
- All wayfarers have plundered him; he was a disgrace to his neighbors.
- You raised the right hand of his adversaries; You caused all his enemies to rejoice.
- You even turned back the sharp edge of his sword, and You did not raise him up in battle.
- You have brought an end to his shining, and his throne You have cast down to earth.
- You have shortened the days of his youth; You have enwrapped him with shame forever.
- After recalling all the divine commitments, Ethan can only note that the millennium past does not reflect them. Not only is David’s throne seemingly but a memory. Esau and Ishmael successively appropriated Israel’s material heritage of the land of Israel, Jerusalem and the Temple Mount. And even spiritually, they do not hesitate to regard Israel’s covenant as null and void and argue mutually for what they consider to be the “true” Israel, the “true” covenant.
- How long, O Lord? Will You hide forever? Will Your anger burn like fire?
- I am mindful what my old age is; for what futility have You created all the sons of man?
- Who is a man who will live and not see death, who will rescue his soul from the grasp of the grave forever?
- Where are Your former acts of kindness, O Lord, which You swore to David in your trust?
- Remember, O Lord, the disgrace of Your servants, which I bear in my bosom, [the disgrace] of all great nations.
- Which Your enemies disgraced, O Lord, which they disgraced the ends of Your anointed.
- Blessed is the Lord forever. Amen and Amen.
 According to: Janine Sourdel and Dominique Sourdel: “Historical Dictionary of Islam”. Chapter: “Abbasids” (French: « Dictionnaire historique de l’Islam ». Chapitre : « Abbassides » (p. 8) ).
 According to: Christian Bonnet and Christine Descatoire: “The Carolingians 741-987”. Chapters: “Louis The Pious 814-840” and “The Turn of 840-843” (French: « Les Carolingiens 741-987 ». Chapitres : « Louis Le Pieux 814-840 » et « Le tournant de 840-843 » (p. 54 à 79) ).
 Bernhard Blumenkranz: “Jews and Christians in the western world 430-1096”. Chapter: “The Jewish Mission” (French: « Juifs et chrétiens dans le monde occidental 430-1096 ». Chapitre : « La mission juive » (p. 195) ).
 Leon Poliakov: “History of anti-Semitism – 1. The age of faith”. Chapter: “Christian Europe”. (French: « Histoire de l’antisémitisme – 1. L’âge de la foi ». Chapitre : « L’Europe Chrétienne ». (p. 236-237) ).