- A short interlude  without great consequences for the Judaism of Palestine was offered by the reign of the Emperor Julian, named “the Apostate” by the Christians; an interlude, of course, but one that saw no less resurgence of the hopes of a national renaissance.
(extract of the psalm 65 associated to this generation, verses 1 to 5 )
- For the conductor, a psalm of David, a song.
- Silence is praise to You, O God in Zion, and to You a vow is paid.
- You, Who hearken to prayer, to You all flesh shall come.
- Words of iniquities have overcome me; as for our transgressions, You shall atone for them.
- Praiseworthy is he whom You choose and draw near to dwell in Your courts; let us be sated with the goodness of Your house, the sanctity of Your Temple.
- In March 363 , Julien goes to war against the Parthians. This is the time when work began in Jerusalem on the erection of the Temple. A high official of the empire, Alypius of Antioch, is in charge of it. But as early as May of the same year, the works appear to have been interrupted. The causes are mysterious. Christian sources speak of earthquakes and a fire that would have fallen from Heaven as well as many miracles that would have accompanied these events. The Roman historian Ammian Marcellin, perhaps the surest source, evokes terrifying balls of fire springing every time “near the foundations” and which burned several workers; the ecclesiastical writer Rufin also speaks of fire and earthquake. Some have speculated that this fire was the main cause of the abandonment of the works and that the Christians were not strangers to the fire. Such an act of sabotage is certainly not to be excluded, but it seems more likely that there was an earthquake (something common at the time) resulting in a fire. It goes without saying that Christians attributed events to direct divine intervention.
(extract of the psalm 65 associated to this generation, verses 6 to 8 )
- With awesome deeds, through [Your] charity You shall answer us, God of our salvation, the trust of all the distant ends of the earth and the sea.
- Who sets mountains with His strength, Who is girded with might.
- Who humbles the roaring of the seas, the roaring of their waves, and the multitude of kingdoms.
(extract of the psalm 65 associated to this generation, verses 9 to 10 to 14 )
- And the dwellers of the ends fear Your signs; with the emergence of morning and evening, You cause [them] to sing praises.
- David evokes the spread of the fear of God to the nations through nascent monotheisms.
- You remember the earth and water it; You enrich it greatly with the stream of God which is full of water; You prepare their corn for so do You prepare it.
- Although these monotheisms are apparently competing to Judaism and they will even harshly oppose it, God will promote hatching to open the eyes of the nations. For his kindness (the stream of God which is full of water) is not limited to Israel.
- To sate its furrows, to afford pleasure to its troops; with raindrops You dissolve it, You bless its plants.
- You crowned a year of Your goodness, and Your paths drip with fatness.
- They drip upon the dwellings of the desert, and hills gird themselves with joy.
- Meadows are clothed with flocks, and valleys are enwrapped with corn; they shout for joy, yea, they sing.
- No region of the world will be forgotten, including the desert areas, so that the knowledge of God floods the world with its benefits.
 Peter Schäfer (French translation by Pascale Schulte): “History of the Jews in antiquity” / Chapter “The uprising of Bar Kokheba” / “The restoration of Julian the Apostate (361-363)” (French: “Histoire des Juifs dans l’antiquité”/Chapitre « Du soulèvement de Bar Kokheba/La restauration de Julien l’Apostat (361-363 » (p210/211) ).
 Peter Schäfer (French translation by Pascale Schulte): “History of the Jews in antiquity” / Chapter “The uprising of Bar Kokheba” / “The restoration of Julian the Apostate (361-363)” (French: “Histoire des Juifs dans l’antiquité”/Chapitre « Du soulèvement de Bar Kokheba/La restauration de Julien l’Apostat (361-363 » (p212/213) ).
 Marcel Simon: “Verus Israel” / Chapter: “Rome, Judaism and Christianity” (French: “Verus Israël”/Chapitre : « Rome, Judaïsme et Christianisme » (p140) ).