- At the beginning  of the 10th century, the Catholic religion presents a face little edifying on the West. The invasions have pushed monks, relics and manuscripts out of monasteries, for several decades sometimes. In the opposite direction, the confusion of spiritual and temporal burdens, the simoniacal practices or the right of lodging introduced in the monasteries of the secular abbots and warriors accompanied by their family. Yet the recovery begins with lay people anxious to restore a church worthy of monastic foundations. […]
In parallel  of the Cluniac movement, other movements go in the direction of renewal, in particular Jean de Gorze initiates a similar movement in the north of Europe. After forging its own religious forces, Europe is ready to free itself from Byzantine tutelage.
Christianity  Latin comes out of its torpor thanks to the impulse of the new communities such as the iconic Cluny. Finding the path of freedom and action, the renovation of the structure is possible, especially as the context lends itself to it, since the period that runs from the middle of the eleventh century to the end of the thirteenth century is characterized by a general boom (economic, demographic, urban, commercial) of the West.
- When  the Crusaders of Spain exercise, en route, their warlike talents in attacking the Jews, Alexander II reminds them, in 1063, the distinction to be observed between Muslims and Jews: those, we must fight them because that they attack Christians and drive them out of cities, not these, the Jews, who are everywhere ready to serve.
- Among  Rabbenu Gershom’s followers was Rabbi Jacob ben Yakar. The latter became the master of Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac, known as Rashi, formed from the first letters of his Hebrew name. Rashi was both the reflection and the creator of the lifestyle of Ashkenazi Jews. Born in 1040 in a family of scholars, he grew up in Troyes. […]
- Rashi’s work  was not intended to serve the ignorant masses; a certain familiarity with the biblical text and some of his difficulties are necessary to approach his work. But the Jewish community surrounding Rashi was not sophisticated and was less dedicated to questioning and philosophical inquiry than Sephardic communities. Their faith was simple and Rashi sought to reinforce it by his comments from the Bible. Israel is God’s chosen because only Israel has accepted the yoke of the Torah. The other nations refused it. Rashi repeats three times during his commentary this Talmudic point of view on the election. Israel is different from other nations, only Israel studies the Torah, a concern considered the highest virtue. Israel is therefore the nation closest to God and the one most dear to Him. The divine presence is in Israel even in the countries of exile, and all will be redeemed at the right time, when the righteous will be rewarded and the sinners punished. God and Israel are intimately bound by love and mutual dependence; it is an eternal and mystical union.
(extract of the psalm 100 associated to this generation, verses 1 to 5 )
- A song for a thanksgiving offering. Shout to the Lord, all the earth.
- Serve the Lord with joy, come before Him with praise.
- Know that the Lord is God; He made us and we are His, people and the flock of His pasture.
- Come into His gates with thanksgiving, [into] His courtyards with praise; give thanks to Him, bless His name.
- For the Lord is good; His kindness is forever, and until generation after generation is His faith.
 Jean Pierre Moisset: “History of Catholicism”. Chapter: “One Church, Two Cultures: East and West” (French: « Histoire du catholicisme ». Chapitre : « Une Église, deux cultures : Orient et Occident ». (p. 178-179) ).
 According to: Jean Pierre Moisset: “History of Catholicism”. Chapter: “One Church, Two Cultures: East and West” (French: « Histoire du catholicisme ». Chapitre : « Une Église, deux cultures : Orient et Occident ». (p. 179-180) ).
 According to: Jean Pierre Moisset: “History of Catholicism”. Chapter: “The affirmation of Latin Christianity”. (French: « Histoire du catholicisme ». Chapitre : « L’affirmation de la chrétienté latine». (p. 185) )
 Bernhard Blumenkranz: “Jews and Christians in the Western World, 430-1096”. Chapter: “The Jews in the city”. (French: « Juifs et Chrétiens dans le monde occidental, 430-1096 ». Chapitre : « Les Juifs dans la cité ». (p. 35) ).
 Chaim Potok: “A story of the Jewish people”. Chapter: “Christianity: Lost in the Enchanted Country”. (French: « Une histoire du peuple Juif ». Chapitre : « Le Christianisme : perdus dans le pays enchanté ». (p. 474-476) (extraits) ).
 Chaim Potok: “A story of the Jewish people”. Chapter: “Christianity: Lost in the Enchanted Country”. (French: « Une histoire du peuple Juif ». Chapitre : « Le Christianisme : perdus dans le pays enchanté ». (p. 478) ).