The previous generation  ended in many conquests of the new Muslim power to the detriment of Byzantine power. Alexandria fell in 642 and Carthage in 647. The Byzantine empire thus impoverished must expect to see the Muslim threat approaching Constantinople.
- Abdallah, son of Sheba , was a Jew from Yemen, who had read the ancient books and was very learned. He came (to Medina) to make a profession of Muslim faith in the hands of Otman, hoping that he would have regard for him. But Otman paid no attention to him, and Abdallah began to whine all over the caliph. When he was informed, he exclaimed, “Who is this Jew?” And he drove him out of Medina. Abdallah went to Egypt, where a great party formed around him, which held him in great honor because of his knowledge. When assured of his influence over these people, he expounded his doctrine in these terms: Christians say that Jesus will return to this world. But Muslims have more right to pretend that Mohammed will come back; for it is said in the Qur’an: “Surely, he who gave you the Qur’an will bring you back to the point of your departure.” A number of people accepted this belief, and when it took root, Abdallah made another. God, he said, had in this world one hundred and twenty-four thousand prophets, and each of these prophets had a minister (vizier). But Mohammed’s minister and lieutenant was Ali, and he was the one who was to succeed him. Otman illegally seized power; for when Omar established the council of election, all (the members) agreed to proclaim Ali, and Abd-er-Rahman, son of Auf, had already taken his hand to take his oath; but Ali was deceived by Amrou, son of Al-Aç, so that Abd-er-Rahman took Otman’s hand and swore an oath to Otman. Otman has thus usurped power. […] The people, having been seduced by the doctrine of the Second Advent of the Prophet and the right of Ali to authority, rallied to it and declared Otman unfaithful. But this secret belief was kept, while publicly it was preached the duty to do well.
- Ka’b al-Akhbar , a Jew, who this year had embraced Islamism, a very learned man, who had read many books, was present at the assembly; He spoke and said: Prince of Believers (He speaks to Omar), which side do you want to go to first (Omar wondered whether to go to Syria, where there was an epidemic, or to Iraq )?
- The next day  (where Omar had a dialogue with a slave whom he senses will be his murderer), Ka’b al-Akhbar came to the caliph and said: Prince of Believers, make your will; because you only have three days left to live. – How do you know ? Asked Omar; did you find in the Pentateuch the name of Omar, son of Khattab? Ka’b replied: I did not find your name there, but your description, along with that of the Prophet, says that you will be his vicar and how long your reign will last. But your reign ends in three days.
- Now  of all Otman’s agents, the worst was Abdallah, son of Sa’d, son of Abu Sarh, governor of Egypt. The people of Egypt sent letters everywhere, in which they made complaints against Abdallah and Otman, and a concert was made to depose Otman and put another in his place. But in no letter was mentioned the name of Ali. The agents of the caliph became acquainted with this correspondence between the different towns. The conspirators agreed to send a certain number of people to Medina for such a month and day, to depose Otman and put in his place one of the companions of the Prophet, Ali, Zobair or Tal’ha. Nobody put forward Muawiya’s name, and he did not have such views. Yet one day he was talking with Ka’b al-Akhbar, and he said to him, “I have found in the books that Atman will be overthrown and killed”. Muawiya said: “What can I not know who will reign after Otman, to make him my court!” Ka’b replied: It is you who will reign but it will be after many struggles, revolutions and after a lot of blood has been shed. It was from that day that Muawiya conceived the idea of coveting power.
- When  the prayer was over, three Ançar […] accompanied by several others, presented themselves and forbade burying him in the cemetery of the Muslims. Now beside the Baqi ‘, and separated from this place by a wall, was the cemetery of the Jews; that’s where Otman was buried. Later, when Muawiya, son of Abu Sofyan, was the undisputed ruler of the Muslim empire, he had the wall between the two fields cut down, and joined the Jewish cemetery to the Muslim cemetery. The side where Otman is buried is called the Beni-Omayya cemetery.
- Ibn Ishâq  says: Muhammad b. Talhah b. Yazid b. Rukânah on the authority of Ismā’îl b. Ibrahim, according to Ibn ‘Abbas, told me that he said: Allah’s Messenger ordered them to be stoned. They did it in front of the door of his mosque. When the Jew felt the stones, he went to his companion and protected her from stoning, until they were killed together.
- The Prophet , having noticed at the first station the absence of Aisha, sent Ali back. The latter met Çafwân driving Aïcha, asked what had happened, and Aïcha told him. Ali returned hastily and informed the Prophet. It had been known in the army that Aisha had not been found in her litter. When she arrived at Çafwan, Abdallah, son of Obavy, said: Aisha is excusable in what she has just done; for Çafwan is more handsome and younger than Muhammad. Each expressed his opinion.
- Then  the Prophet called Ali, son of Abu-Talib, and Osama, son of Zaid, and questioned them about Aisha. Osama, who had been brought up in the house of the Prophet, said: I never saw that she did anything reprehensible, neither in fact nor in words; I swear. Ali spoke thus: Apostle of God, deliver yourself from these difficulties; there are many women in the world; if there is in your mind a suspicion with regard to that one, choose another.
- As  for those who accuse honourable women and do not bring four witnesses, strike them eighty lashes, and never accept any testimony from them after that, and they are transgressors,
- Aicha  was the enemy of Otman; she had constantly stated that he had to amend or abdicate. By the time he was besieged in his hotel, she had left for the pilgrimage. But when Ali had been proclaimed Caliph, she was very angry, for she kept a grudge against Ali for the language he had held to the Prophet, from the time that she had been slandered and accused of adultery. […] Since Aisha was unhappy with Ali’s appointment, she said that Atman had been killed unjustly and that he had to avenge his death. It was just when she had just left Mecca that she learned of these last events. She immediately retraced her steps, saying: My place is no longer in Madina. All those who fled from Medina gathered around her and committed themselves to her. They told him in detail how cruelly Otman had been killed, and she cried and cried, “God have mercy on Otman! It is a duty for all Muslims to avenge his death!
The empire initiated by Muhammad quickly lost its uniqueness as before that built by David and Solomon. At the death of Solomon , Jeroboam of the tribe of Ephraim led the revolt that led to the schism between Judah and Israel.
(extract of the psalm 80 associated to this generation, verses 1 to 3 )
- For the conductor, to the roses, a testimony, of Asaph a song.
- O Shepherd of Israel, hearken, He Who leads Joseph like flocks, He Who dwells between the cherubim, appear.
- Before Ephraim, Benjamin, and Manasseh arouse Your might, and it is for You to save us.
(extract of the psalm 80 associated to this generation, verses 4 to 7 )
- O God, return us; cause Your countenance to shine and we shall be saved.
- O Lord God of Hosts, how long have You been wroth at Your people’s prayer?
- You have fed them bread of tears, and You have given them to drink tears in large measure.
- You have made us the target of strife to our neighbors, and our enemies mock themselves.
(extract of the psalm 80 associated to this generation, verses 8 to 12 )
- O God of Hosts, return us; cause Your countenance to shine and we shall be saved.
- You uprooted a vine from Egypt; You drove out nations and planted it.
- You cleared [a place] before it; it took root and filled the land.
- Mountains were covered [by] its shade, and its branches were great cedars.
- It sent forth its branches until the sea, and to the river its tender shoots.
(extract of the psalm 80 associated to this generation, verses 13 and 14 to 17 to 20 )
- Why have You breached its fences, so that all wayfarers have plucked its fruit?
- The boar from the forest ravages it, and all that move in the field feed on it.
- The wild boar evokes Rome that had sacked Jerusalem. “That move in the field” evokes the Arabs by evoking their nomadic character, and thus the taking possession of Jerusalem by the Arabs, which unlike the Christians will still respect its sanctity.
- O God of Hosts, return now; look from heaven and see, and be mindful of this vine,
- And of the foundation that Your right hand has planted and over the son You have strengthened for Yourself.
- Burned with fire [and] cut off; from the rebuke of Your countenance they perish.
- The psalmist addresses a new faith his prayer towards God, so that it is not content to survive his people but gives back its past splendor.
- May Your hand be upon the man of Your right hand, upon the son of man whom You strengthened for Yourself.
- And let us not withdraw from You; grant us life, and we shall call out in Your name.
- O Lord God of Hosts, return us; cause Your countenance to shine, and we shall be saved.
- The conclusion of the psalm recalls the faith of the people of Israel towards their God and the confidence in the final salvation despite the trials of the night.
 According to: John Julius Norwich: “History of Byzantium”. Chapter: “The first centuries” (French: « Histoire de Byzance ». Chapitre : « Les premiers siècles » (p 121 à 123, extraits : p.122) ).
 TABARI: “The chronicle / The first four caliphs”. Chapter: “Appearance of the doctrine of the second advent. Revolt against Otman “(French: « La chronique/Les quatre premiers califes ». Chapitre : « Apparition de la doctrine du second avènement. Révoltes contre Otman » (p. 306/307) ).
 TABARI: “The chronicle / The first four caliphs”. Chapter: “Omar’s Journey to Syria” (French: « La chronique/Les quatre premiers califes ». Chapitre : « Voyage d’Omar en Syrie » (p. 182) ).
 TABARI: “The chronicle / The first four caliphs”. Chapter: “Death of Omar” (French: « La chronique/Les quatre premiers califes ». Chapitre : « Mort d’Omar » (p. 255/256) ).
 TABARI: “The chronicle / The first four caliphs”. Chapter: “Appearance of the doctrine of the second advent. Revolt against Otman “(French: « La chronique/Les quatre premiers califes ». Chapitre : « Apparition de la doctrine du second avènement. Révoltes contre Otman » (p. 307/308) ).
 TABARI: “The chronicle / The first four caliphs”. Chapter: “Death of Omar” (French: « La chronique/Les quatre premiers califes ». Chapitre : « Mort d’Omar » (p. 328) ).
 Ibn Ishâq: “Muhammad” (French translation of Abdurrahmân Badawî), chapter: “They (the Jews) refer to the envoy of Allah about stoning”. (French: « Muhammad » (Traduction de Abdurrahmân Badawî), chapitre : « Ils (les Juifs) se réfèrent à l’envoyé d’Allah au sujet de la lapidation». (T.I, p. 470 à 472) ).
 TABARI: “Chronicle / Mohammed, seal of the prophets”. Chapter: “Aisha, victim of slander” (French: « La chronique/Mohammed, sceau des prophètes ». Chapitre : «Aïcha, victime d’une calomnie» (p. 237/238) ).
 TABARI: “Chronicle / Mohammed, seal of the prophets”. Chapter: “Aisha, victim of slander” (French: « La chronique/Mohammed, sceau des prophètes ». Chapitre : «Aïcha, victime d’une calomnie» (p. 239) ).
 The Quran – Chapter 24 – The Light / al-Nūr ( النور ), verse 4
 TABARI: “The chronicle / The first four caliphs”. Chapter: “Ali Appoints New Governors” (French: « La chronique/Les quatre premiers califes ». Chapitre : « Ali nomme de nouveaux gouverneurs » (p. 340/341) ).
 According to: Melachim I – I Kings – Chapter 12