Primal actor  of previous generations, the Mongols have become the masters of China. Kubilai, grandson of Genghis Khan, completed the conquest of the Song territories in 1276 and became emperor by founding his own dynasty: the Yuan Dynasty. The Song Dynasty has been synonymous with many scientific and technical advances. In particular, the progress of the printing industry (xylographic process) contributes to the diffusion of knowledge and to the increase of the literate population.
The Mongols do not want to destroy a civilization they admire: Kubilai retains the Chinese administration and strives to develop the country, he professes great religious tolerance. It opens the doors of China to Europe and thus allows the latter great advances thanks in particular to Marco Polo (1254-1324), son of a family of Venetian merchants. After being invited to China for seventeen years, he writes on his return “the book of wonders” which will be the starting point for a better knowledge of Asia and the introduction in Europe of the many technological and cultural advances of this continent.
(extract of the psalm 113 associated to this generation, verses 1 to 8 )
- Hallelujah! Praise, you servants of the Lord, praise the name of the Lord.
- May the name of the Lord be blessed from now and to eternity.
- From the rising of the sun until its setting, the name of the Lord is praised.
- The Lord is high over all nations; upon the heavens is His glory.
- Who is like the Lord, our God, Who dwells on high,
- Who lowers [His eyes] to look in the heavens and the earth?
- He lifts the pauper up from the dust, from the dungheap He raises up the needy,
- To seat [him] with princes, with the princes of His people.
- When  Jacob entered this sixth palace […]. The world was not strengthened until Abraham entered this palace. […]. Isaac also entered this palace. […] Joseph the righteous has become attached to the Column of the middle which supports the world.
Like the Zohar’s “Treaty of the Palaces, “The Divine Comedy” makes a prodigious description of heaven and hell. As in the Jewish version where the main biblical characters are found, and the version of “The Night Journey” where Muhammad meets the main prophets, in his initiatory journey Dante also meets a hundred characters, but this time the list is rather inspired by the Christian history (encompassing Greek antiquity).
- “From famine, plague, and war, deliver us, O Lord” , such is the prayer of the men of the fourteenth century, overwhelmed by the misfortune of the times.
- In 1315 , a terrible famine, the worst probably of history, fell on Europe. The summer of 1314 was rainy and that of 1315 was a real deluge: the harvest was catastrophic, and where, as in Flanders, vast areas were flooded, it was almost zero. […] The famine was such that in Paris, in Antwerp, people died by the hundreds in the streets, and the desolation was not to be less in the villages: the cases of cannibalism were frequent. […] The harvests of 1316 and 1317 were also bad, so that it was not until 1318 that there was an improvement: but the consequences of the calamity, epidemics, social disorders, were still felt a long time In certain regions.
- After  a phase of long reigns and relative stability, another was opened of accelerated successions, marked by many uncertainties. In the space of fourteen years, three sons of Philip Le Bel succeeded each other on the throne of France, “all grand and beautiful like their father”, Louis X le Hutin (1314-1316), Philippe V le Long (1316-1322 ) and Charles IV Le Bel (1322-1328). […] None of the three son of Philip IV left no male heir who could succeed him. […]
This decision frustrates the King of England and is one of the main causes of the Hundred Years War that will oppose for more than a century England and France:
- The decision  of the assembly of 1328 (which allowed Philippe de Valois to succeed Charles IV) may well be imbued with wisdom, Edward III was convinced of his good rights and made it known as early as May 1328. By this date the feudal feud had turned into a dynastic conflict which itself concealed the antagonism of two monarchies in search of their “natural” areas of domination. This confrontation was brightened by the economic competition of two emerging nations for the control of some key products, such as wine, salt and wool. It took a century of war to decide such a dispute.
- May his end be to be cut off; in another generation may their name be blotted out.
- May the iniquity against his forefathers be remembered by the Lord, and may the sin against his mother not be erased.
- Charles IV , the last of the Capetians, was then dead, and with Philip VI began in France the reign of the Valois dynasty. It is interesting to note in passing that even among Christians, it was believed that Philip the Fair, by his cruelty to the Jews, had called divine wrath on his descendants and thus caused the extinction of the Capetians.
(extract of the psalm 113 associated to this generation, verses 9 to 8 )
- He seats the barren woman of the house as a happy mother of children. Hallelujah!
 According to (preface by) Georges Duby: “A history of the medieval world”. (French: « Une histoire du monde médiéval » ).
 (Maisonneuve and Larose Publishing, Book IV) The Zohar, Appendix to Chapter Pékoudé “Treaty Center,” page 256b to 257b (original numbering). (French: Le Zohar – Livre IV, Appendice au chapitre Pékoudé : « Traité des Palais », page 256b à 257b (numérotation d’origine). (p. 290 à 291, numérotation livre) ).
 (preface by Georges Duby): “A history of the medieval world”. Chapter: “Old Empires and Young Nations, Great Mutations, 1300-1492). (French: « Une histoire du monde médiéval ». Chapitre : « Vieux empires et jeunes nations, Grandes mutations, 1300-1492). (p. 329-330) ).
 Léon Poliakov: “History of anti-Semitism: from Christ to court Jews”. (French: « Histoire de l’antisémitisme : du Christ aux Juifs de cour ». (p. 118 à 120) )
 (collective) “The Capetians – History and Dictionary”. Chapter: “The last Capetians, 1314-1328”. (French: « Les Capétiens – Histoire et Dictionnaire ». Chapitre : «Les derniers Capétiens, 1314-1328 ». (p. 429 et 443) ).
 (collective) “The Capetians – History and Dictionary”. Chapter: “The last Capetians, 1314-1328”. (French: « Les Capétiens – Histoire et Dictionnaire ». Chapitre : «Les derniers Capétiens, 1314-1328 ». (p. 446) ).
 Henri Graetz: “HISTORY OF THE JEWS / THIRD PERIOD – DISPERSION”. Second time – Science and Jewish poetry in their prime. Chapter Ten – Progress of Bigotry and Cabal (1270-1325). (French: « HISTOIRE DES JUIFS / TROISIÈME PÉRIODE — LA DISPERSION ». Deuxième époque — La science et la poésie juive à leur apogée. Chapitre dix — Progrès de la bigoterie et de la Cabale (1270-1325) ).