- Citizens  of the Empire since the Edict of Caracalla, the Jews are a religious community and not a foreign people; as such, they are protected while retaining their privileges: freedom of worship, provision of their synagogues, special courts of justice, respect for their customs by Christians, from circumcision to the Sabbath and diet. The Church, which sees in this community punished a living example for Christians, formally prohibits forced conversion. In 787, the Council of Nicaea recalls that all conversion can proceed only from conviction or a miraculous operation. It is true that the state, at times when it seeks a certain spiritual unanimity, sometimes tries to convert the Jews: after the edict of Heraclius, there was severe persecution under Basil 1, during the Pauline crisis then under Roman Lecapene, when the reconquest took a decisive turn. But the results were nil and we quickly returned to the usual tolerance: just like the Basilicas, the canonical collections then renew the old protective provisions.
- The effort  of evangelization of pagan or Arian lands is also an effort to reconquer the territories lost under the pressure of Islam. Taking advantage of the Byzantine revival and discord within the ruling families in the Muslim world, the Macedonian dynasty went on the offensive in 924 under the reign of Roman 1st Lecapene (920-944). The soldiers who lead the war for God and for their Christian brethren pray morning and evening, fast, worship the icons, communicate before the battle, and go off fighting with their war cry: “The cross is victorious”.
Many forced conversions  take place, and executions take place in the south of Italy. Accused of treason for the benefit of the Fatimids, many communities disappear with an exodus to the Maghreb.
(extract of the psalm 94 associated to this generation, verses 1 to 4 )
- O God of vengeance, O Lord; O God show vengeance.
- Exalt Yourself, O Judge of the earth, render to the haughty their recompense.
- How long will the wicked, O Lord, how long will the wicked rejoice?
- They spout forth, they speak falsely; all workers of violence boast.
In the Abbasid empire , following a lack of elite, the exilarch David Ben Zakkai had been forced to abandon the academy of Sura in favor of Poumbédita but quickly returned to his decision. Two candidates were then in smooth to take the direction of which Saadia Gaon who presided in 928. The academy had lost much of its luster, undermined by corruption.
(extract of the psalm 94 associated to this generation, verses 5 to 7 )
- Your people, O Lord, they crush, and Your inheritance they afflict.
- They slay the widow and the stranger, and they murder the orphans.
- They say, « Yah will not see, nor will the God of Jacob understand. »
- Sura’s Jews  de Sura voyaient arriver avec douleur la fin de l’école fondée par Rab, qui, pendant plus de sept
(extract of the psalm 94 associated to this generation, verses 8 to 14 )
- Understand, [you] most boorish of the people, and [you] fools, when will you gain intelligence?
- Will He Who implants the ear not hear or will He Who forms the eye not see?
- Will He Who chastises nations not reprove? [He is] the One Who teaches man knowledge.
- The Lord knows man’s thoughts that they are vanity.
- Fortunate is the man whom You, Yah, chastise, and from Your Torah You teach him.
- To grant him peace from days of evil, while a pit is a dug for the wicked.
- For the Lord will not forsake His people, nor will He desert His inheritance.
- As an exception , being a Jew in Cordoba was neither a threat nor a misfortune. Eliyahu Ashtor, a circumspect scholar and rampant Zionist, from whom I have learned almost everything I report about Hasdai ibn Chaprut, says that never in the history of the diaspora, except at the time of the Andalusian Umayyads, does he There were eight consecutive generations of Jews who knew neither the blackmail of a questionable tolerance nor the terror of indisputable persecution. Christians, the descendants of the Arab conquerors and the Muwallads, Spanish converts to Islam, had an incorrigible tendency to discord and rebellion. Unlike all those, the Jews never raised insurrection nor were disloyal to the power: for three centuries, in Cordoba, the synagogues did not experience any profanation.
(extract of the psalm 94 associated to this generation, verses 15 to 23 )
- For until righteousness will judgment return, and after it all those upright in heart.
- Who will rise up for me against evildoers; who will stand up for me against workers of violence?
- Had not the Lord been my help, in an instant my soul would rest silent.
- If I said, « My foot has slipped, » Your kindness, O Lord, supported me.
- With my many thoughts within me, Your consolations cheered me.
- Will the throne of evil join You, which forms iniquity for a statute?
- They gather upon the soul of the righteous and condemn innocent blood.
- But the Lord was my fortress, and my God the rock of my refuge.
- And He returned upon them their violence, and for their evil, may He cut them off; may the Lord our God cut them off.
 Alain Ducellier: “Byzantium and the Orthodox world”. Chapter: “Ideological Renewals”. (French: « Byzance et le monde orthodoxe ». Chapitre : « Renouvellements idéologiques ». (p. 290) ).
 Jean-Pierre Moisset: “History of Catholicism”. Chapter: “One Church, Two Cultures: East and West” (French: « Histoire du catholicisme ». Chapitre : « Une église, deux cultures : Orient et Occident ». (p. 167-168) ).
 According to : www.hebraica.org
 According to and excerpts from: Henri Graetz: “HISTORY OF THE JEWS / THIRD PERIOD – DISPERSION”. Second epoch – Science and Jewish poetry at their peak. Chapter 1 – Saadia, Hasdai and their contemporaries (928-970). (French: « HISTOIRE DES JUIFS / TROISIÈME PÉRIODE — LA DISPERSION ». Deuxième époque — La science et la poésie juive à leur apogée. Chapitre premier — Saadia, Hasdaï et leurs contemporains (928-970) ).
 Henri Graetz: “HISTORY OF THE JEWS / THIRD PERIOD – DISPERSION”. Second epoch – Science and Jewish poetry at their peak. Chapter 1 – Saadia, Hasdai and their contemporaries (928-970). (French: « HISTOIRE DES JUIFS / TROISIÈME PÉRIODE — LA DISPERSION ». Deuxième époque — La science et la poésie juive à leur apogée. Chapitre premier — Saadia, Hasdaï et leurs contemporains (928-970) ).
 Antonio Munoz Molina: “Cordoba of the Umayyads”. Chapter: “The Doctor of the Caliph”. (French: « Cordoue des Omeyyades ». Chapitre : « Le médecin du Calife ». (p. 141) ).