The  counter-offensive of Heraclius against the Persians is a success. In 627, he walked on Ctesiphon, then capital of the Persian empire. This defeat of the Persians led to the dismissal and execution of King Chosroes and the decline of the empire in the succession struggle that ensued.
In 628, Heraclius is at its peak when he brings back the sacred relics of the true cross to Constantinople. Byzantium had just been permanently sheltered from the Persians. Unfortunately for Byzantium, the removal of this threat is not a guarantee of lasting peace, because at the same time, the Arab troops took the opportunity to build behind the barrier of Islam and this generation sees the real beginning of their conquests
- A first clash  takes place in Qadisiya, near Hira; Sassanid troops are led by Rostam, a valiant commander-in-chief supported by a strong army. But it is crushed by the Arab cavalry, and Rostam himself dies on the battlefield. Shortly after, the city of Ctesiphon falls into the hands of the invaders and delivers them a fabulous booty. On the plateau, the resistance is organized around the sovereign. In 642, in the plain of Nahavan, south of Hamadan, Yasdegerd’s troops again confronted the Muslim army, and the battle ended in a new Sassanid defeat. The king fled to the east, accompanied by his court; then, like the last Achaemenid, he was murdered in the vicinity of Marv in 651. Iran is now a province of the young Muslim state.
In the face of the succession struggles that lie ahead and for which he is not yet ready, Omar has named as the first Caliph (of the Arabic Khalifah: successor – of the prophet) Abu Bekr the stepfather of Muhammad. Because of his age, he could not fear that he would drag for a long time in power. He blocked the way among others to Ali, the nephew of Muhammad who would have been a logical successor.
- In 622 , Heraclius engaged a happy counteroffensive against the Persians and entered 627/628 in Persian territory. When Chosroes was deposed and murdered in 628 by his own son, serious quarrels of succession broke out in the country. In such circumstances, Heraclius had the good fortune to deliver the occupied provinces and to obtain the return of the relics of the cross and the release of the Christian prisoners. On March 21, 629, he penetrated triumphantly to Jerusalem and replaced the relics of the cross in the church of the Holy Sepulcher. To the Jews of Palestine, he had promised an amnesty to Tiberias. But he could not respect his commitments. Under pressure from Christian leaders who had not forgotten the persecutions during the Jewish government from 614 to 627, he again banished the Jews from Jerusalem and had to accept that many of them were executed.
(extract of the psalm 79 associated to this generation, verses 1 to 3 )
- A song of Asaph. O God! Nations have come into Your heritage, they have defiled Your Holy Temple, they have made Jerusalem into heaps.
- They have given the corpses of Your servants as food to the birds of the heaven, the flesh of Your pious ones to the beasts of the earth.
- They have spilt their blood like water around Jerusalem, and no one buries [them].
- Immaculate  is He who carried His servant (Muhammad) on a journey by night from the Sacred Mosque (Mecca) to the Farthest Mosque (Jérusalem) whose environs We have blessed, that We might show him some of Our signs. Indeed He is the All-hearing, the All-seeing.
Jacques Berque , in his comments on this verse of this sura, first remark that “made night go” makes pleonasm with “an instant of the night” then on the rest of the verse:
- «the ultimate Oratory »; literal translation.
(extract of the psalm 79 associated to this generation, verses 4 to 10 and first part of verse 11 )
- We were a disgrace to our neighbors, ridicule and derision to those around us.
- This was true already in the West (and this is accentuated with Heraclius who resorts to forced conversions), but here it is the peoples of the East, who were classically the neighbors of the people of Israel when they were sovereign on their land, which in turn take over the Jews.
- How long, O Lord? Will You be wroth forever? Will Your jealousy burn like fire?
- At this stage of the night, the Jews could have hoped that the worst had passed. In fact the new geopolitical situation shows, on the contrary, that the night is far from over.
- Pour out Your wrath upon the nations that do not know You and upon the kingdoms that did not call out in Your name.
- For they devoured Jacob and made his dwelling desolate.
- Do not remember for us the early iniquities; may Your mercies quickly come before us for we have become very poor.
- Many Jews supported the Arab conquest, believing that the new empire would bring down Rome (the Christian world) which had destroyed the second temple. All the eschatological hopes linked to the expansion of the Arab world will be in vain: The Arab empire will not come to supplant the Christian empire, but is hatching at its side.
- Help us, O God of our salvation, on account of the glory of Your name, and save us and atone for our sins for Your name’s sake.
- Why should the nations say, « Where is their God? » Let it be known among the nations before our eyes the revenge of the spilt blood of Your servants.
- May the cry of the prisoner come before You;
- The psalmist signals his despair to God, because the Arab expansion did not allow to end the night as hoped despite the price paid by the Jews of Medina whether it was those who were executed or those who became captives.
- So  says the Lord God: When I gather in the house of Israel from the peoples among whom they have been scattered, and I have been sanctified through them in the eyes of the nations, then shall they dwell on their land that I gave to My servant, to Jacob.
- And they shall dwell upon it securely, and they shall build houses and plant vineyards and dwell securely when I execute judgments against all those who plunder them from all around them, and they shall know that I am the Lord their God.”
(extract of the psalm 79 associated to this generation, second part of verse 11 and verses 12 and 13 )
- according to the greatness of Your arm, set free the children of the mother who died.
- All of the conflicts mentioned take place after the Holocaust, when humanity could think that the fate of the people of Israel had definitely been settled by the Nazis. Instead, it has been stronger than it has ever been before.
- And return to our neighbors sevenfold into their bosom, their reproach with which they reproached You, O Lord.
- Seven hostile nations and seven conflicts, but all will fail.
- But we, Your people and the flock of Your pasture, shall thank You forever; to all generations we shall recite Your praise.
- The psalmist concludes by thanking God once again, for despite the torments of the night, his people have never given up their trust.
 According to: John Julius Norwich: “History of Byzantium” (French: « Histoire de Byzance » (p. 115 à 122) ).
 Yves Porter: “The Iranians” (French: « Les Iraniens » (p.100) )
 Peter Schäfer: “History of the Jews in Antiquity”, this quote concludes Peter Schäfer’s book (with appropriate conclusion) (French: « Histoire des Juifs dans l’antiquité » (p. 223) ).
 The Kuran, CORAN, Surah 17, “The Night Journey”, “al-isra'”,( الإسراء ), ,The surah is also known as “Glory, The children of Israel”, verse 1
 The Kuran, CORAN, Surah 17, “The Night Journey”, “al-isra'”,( الإسراء ), ,The surah is also known as “Glory, The children of Israel”, verse 1, (following the -french- translation of Jacques Berque).
 Notes by Jacques Berque in his translation of “Qur’an / Surah 17 / verse 1”
 Yechezkel – Ezekiel – Chapter 28, verses 25 et 26