550 AD to 570 AD, Psalm 75: The horns of the altar.

This site was first built in French (see www.147thgeneration.net). The English translation was mainly done using « google translation ». We have tried to correct the result of this translation to avoid interpretation errors. However, it is likely that there are unsatisfactory translations, do not hesitate to communicate them to us for correction.
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    Summary

This generation is from the years 550 AD to 570 AD.

According to our count, this generation is the 75th generation associated with Psalm 75. It is in this Psalm 75 that we therefore find an illustration of the facts of this generation.

At the political level, this generation sees consolidating powers in place in both the East (Khosro I) and the West (Justinian I).

This generation is rather peaceful for the Jewish people, despite its lot of vexations and forced conversion attempts.

It is a transitional context where great empires are at their peak after succeeding other empires that eventually disappear. These empires will disappear in their turn to give way to others. It is thus the occasion for the psalm, associated with this generation, to evoke the fragility of the empires of the moment as well as of the third which will soon emerge from the desert after the imminent birth of Muhammad and therefore of Islam.

The ancient world will be shared again between East and West, between Christian land and land of Islam. The known world will soon be divided between two monotheisms, Christianity and Islam, themselves stemming from Judaism.

For everyone, there are three directions of fulfillment: oneself, the other, God. For man, the possibility of moving forward or backward in his own fulfillment, of going left or right in his fulfillment towards others, of rising or descending in his fulfillment towards God. To be compared to a system of mathematical axes to define three-dimensional space.

The purpose of religions is to promote positive fulfillment and to restrain negative fulfillment as much as possible.

The doctrine of Christianity can be summed up as « Love your neighbor as yourself » are, as we have already explained, the dimensions X (yourself) and Y (the other, your neighbor) are the two earthly dimensions to the exclusion of the celestial dimension Z (God) which is the great absent from Christian doctrine. This missing dimension of Christianity is in fact the prerogative of the new monotheistic religion: Islam. Islam which can be summed up in the first verse of the Quran: « In the Name of Allah,the All-beneficent, the All-merciful ».

The references of the psalm of this generation to the horns make it possible to refer to the constitution of the tent of meeting which integrates the references to these two monotheisms.

Talk

To fully explain Psalm 75, the one associated with this generation 75, it would be necessary to approach explanations that go far beyond the usual rational framework. When creating this website, we introduced a very light version of the explanations of the psalm associated with this generation. In the current version (updated in 2021) we lift the veil a little on the explanations and indicate why the Tent of Meeting, the heart of the Temple, perfectly symbolizes the 3 monotheisms: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. However, these explanations are not yet really complete, part of the irrationality associated with this psalm is therefore not explained here, without this being blocking.

Justinian I

At the political level, this generation sees consolidating powers in place in both the East and the West.

In the West (since the Western Roman Empire has disappeared, Byzantium, the former Eastern Christian empire, becomes the West in the face of Persia, the new East in this new division of the world), this generation is marked by the end of the long reign of Justinian I (527-565) followed by that of the beginning of the reign of Justin II (565-578).

On the eastern side, Khosro I (531-579) also continues his long reign.

The end of Justinian’s reign marks the end of the Roman model:

  • An[1] era was ending (with the death of Justinian). Justinian was the last true Roman Emperor to occupy the Byzantine throne. […] He was thinking in terms of the Ancient Roman Empire. He never understood that that empire had become an anachronism. Gone are the days when one man could claim unmistakable universal authority. […]
  • Economically, despite his best efforts, Justinian left a weakened empire. If only for this reason, he cannot be considered a very great sovereign. On the other hand, he left it infinitely richer in conveniences, services and public works, and incomparably more beautiful. He pushed back his borders, he simplified and rationalized his laws. He worked endlessly, tirelessly, at what he believed was right for his subjects. Like few rulers in history have ever succeeded. More than any other monarch in the history of Byzantium, he marked the empire with his personality. It will take centuries for the empire to emerge from its shadow.

Justinian 1st will be a reference in the Byzantine world, the reign of Khosrô also corresponds to a peak of the Sassanid world:

  • The[2] figure of Khosrô 1st Anushiravân has become, in the collective memory, that of a virtuous prince, enamored of justice, of which the gôshân then the poets sang the deeds. Firdûsî, puts it on the stage both for the wisdom he shows, his fairness, but also his courage and determination. Beside the romantic, epic or moral aspect, it is certain that the reign of Khosrô I constitutes in a way the apogee of the Sassanid empire. The military and diplomatic successes are indeed coupled with a more prosperous period than the previous ones, and favorable to the arts, sciences and literature, as well as to cultural exchanges.

Return of the remains of the Temple to Jerusalem

It is a transitional context where great empires are at their peak after succeeding other empires that eventually disappear.

These empires will disappear in their turn to give way to others.

Meanwhile, the Jewish people, devoid of kingdom and scattered among the nations condemned to suffer the bullying of the latter, crosses the time and survives despite all these upheavals of the world while waiting to find his place on his land and near God.

It is this particular destiny that the psalm of this generation evokes.

In the previous generation, while fighting against Carthage, Belisarius brought back to Constantinople many of the precious objects of the Temple that the Romans had brought in 71 and that had fallen into the hands of Genseric during the sack of Rome in 455.

1024px-Old_Jerusalem_Golden_Menorah_replica_in_the_Cardo

These objects are returned to the Jews of Jerusalem a few years later, presumably during this generation. The return of these symbols of the past glory of the Jewish people marks the supremacy of the latter over the empires, as prestigious as they are, which succeed one another in the domination of the world. Rome has disappeared, the Jewish people are still there and the link of this people with their land, with Jerusalem and its Temple remains as strong as ever.

This is what the author of the psalm of this generation expresses in the preamble of this psalm:

(extract of the psalm 75 associated to this generation, verses 1 and 2 )

  • For the conductor, al tashcheth, a psalm of Asaph, a song.
  • We have thanked You, O God, we have thanked, and Your name is near; they have told Your wonders.

The following verses of the psalm, relies on the illusions of nations materialized by the empires of this generation to recall the future of this world:

(extract of the psalm 75 associated to this generation, verses 3 to 8 )

  • When I take a festive day, I shall judge with fairness.
  • When the earth and all its inhabitants were melting away, I established its pillars forever.
  • I said to the perverse, « Do not behave perversely, » and to the wicked, « Do not raise the horn. » 
    • The glory of past empires and their disappearance must be a strong message to the new empires that share the world and those who will dominate it in future generations. All the glory of the nations is transitory and there is no reason to boast of it because all have an end.
  • Do not raise your horn on high, [do not] speak with [your] fat neck.
  • For it is not from the east or from the west, neither from the desert does elevation come.
  • But God judges; He humbles this one and elevates that one. 
    • The psalmist relies more pertinently on this generation to support his speech since in fact the (known) world is shared between East and West between Byzantine Empire and Persian Empire. To these empires a troublemaker will redistribute the cards. Soon, from the desert, will appear Muhammad who will create a new Empire in the East relying heavily on the foundations of the Persian empire. All this will lead to a sharing of the (known) world between the Christian West and the Muslim East. Thus when the psalmist quotes « not from the east or from the west, neither from the desert « , he takes into account the empires of the moment and the programmed evolution of the East by the arrival of Islam (of the desert ). He indicates that all these evolutions are not accidental and enter into a destiny desired by the divine who alone is entitled to establish or break the balance of the world (But God judges; He humbles this one and elevates that one).

Horns

This generation is rather peaceful for the Jewish people, despite its lot of vexations and forced conversion attempts.

In fact, the psalm of this generation rather emphasizes the rest of the night by once again evoking the « horns » which is a recurring theme in the psalms and more broadly in the various books of the Bible. For the psalms, the horns are mentioned for the first time in psalm twenty-two:

  • Save[3] my soul from the sword, my only one from the grip of the dog.
  • Save me from the lion’s mouth, as from the horns of the wild oxen You answered me.

Now the twenty-second generation, attached to this psalm twenty-two, represents many similarities with the present generation. The Jewish people return to their land after the Babylonian exile with apparent sovereignty. In our generation, the Jewish people are recovering some remains of the Temple.

The first twenty-one generations represent three times seven generations, three times the first series of curses which announce three times seven times seven curses are the one hundred and forty-seven generations of the night that the twenty-second generation initiates.

The twenty-second generation symbolizes the entry into the deep night that the Jewish people begins its confrontation with the nations and the individuals with the horns of these (remember that the bull represents the priesthood), mainly Christianity that has already gained a foothold before the present generation and Islam that will soon emerge. Remember that the bull represents the priesthood; although we can « demonstrate » it, we will not give further explanation about it on this website.

1024px-Roman-Empire_565ad

The ancient world will be shared again between East and West, between Christian land and land of Islam, the horns symbolize this sharing of the world.

As the Qur’an mentions through the character of Alexander the Great, as Tabari explains:

  • Alexander[4] is called Dsoul-Qarnaïn for this reason that he went from one end of the world to the other. The word « qarn » means horn, and the ends of the world are called horns. He, having gone to both ends of the world, both east and west, is called Dsul-Qarnaïn.

The altar

In fact the Hebrew term (קרנות) of the same root used in the psalm is also used several times in Leviticus for the atonement sacrifices:

  • And[5] he slaughtered [it], and Moses took the blood, and placed it on the horns of the altar, around, with his finger, and he purified the altar. And he poured the blood at the base of the altar, and sanctified it [the altar], to effect atonement upon it.

Also:

  • And[6] Moses said to Aaron, « Approach the altar and perform your sin offering and your burnt offering, atoning for yourself and for the people, and perform the people’s sacrifice, atoning for them, as the Lord has commanded.
  • So Aaron approached the altar and slaughtered his sin offering calf.
  • And Aaron’s sons brought forward the blood to him, and he dipped his finger into the blood, placing [some] on the horns of the altar, and he poured the blood at the base of the altar.

As well as :

  • And[7] he (Aaron) shall then go out to the altar that is before the Lord and effect atonement upon it: He shall take some of the bull’s blood and some of the he goat’s blood, and place it on the horns of the altar, around.
  • And[8] the kohen shall dip his finger into the blood and sprinkle some of the blood seven times before the Lord, before the dividing curtain of the Sanctuary.
  • And the kohen shall place some of the blood on the horns of the incense altar which is in the Tent of Meeting, before the Lord, and he shall pour all the blood of the bull onto the base of the altar [used] for burnt offerings, which is at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting.
  • (same for the fault of the whole assembly of Israel – verses 17-18)
  • And[9] the kohen shall take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger, and place [it] on the horns of the altar [used] for burnt offerings. And then he shall pour its blood onto the base of the altar [used] for burnt offerings.

While for the other sacrifices, the blood is always sprinkled on the altar or towards the interior of the Tent of Meeting:

  • And[10] he shall slaughter the young bull before the Lord. And Aaron’s descendants, the kohanim, shall bring the blood, and dash the blood upon the altar, around [the altar] which is at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting.

Too :

  • And[11] if his offering is [brought] from the flock from sheep or from goats as a burnt offering he shall sacrifice it an unblemished male.
  • And he shall slaughter it on the northern side of the altar, before the Lord. And Aaron’s descendants, the kohanim, shall dash its blood upon the altar, around.

As well as :

  • And[12] the kohen shall bring it (bird holocaust) near to the altar, and nip off its head, and cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar, and its [the bird’s] blood shall be pressed out upon the wall of the altar.
  • And[13] he slaughtered [it] (the holocaust ram), and Moses dashed the blood on the altar, around.

For peace sacrifices:

  • And[14] he shall lean his hand [forcefully] upon the head of his sacrifice and slaughter it at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting. And Aaron’s descendants, the kohanim, shall dash the blood upon the altar, around.
  • And[15] he slaughtered the ox and the ram, the people’s peace offering, and Aaron’s sons presented the blood to him, and he dashed it on the altar, around,

For the atonement of slight faults (such as the impurity suffered) which can be redeemed elsewhere without sacrificing animals (offering of flour):

  • He[16] (the cohen) shall sprinkle from the blood of the sin offering on the wall of the altar, and the remainder of the blood shall be pressed out onto the base of the altar. It is a sin offering.

So most of the sacrifices are made inside the tent while the main atonement sacrifices are made outside (the « horns »). Now we know that the interior is partitioned by the ten linen hangings representing the ten tribes of Israel (completed internally by the presence of the high priest for the eleventh tribe that of Levi, while the twelfth, that of Judah, cannot enter it only at the end of time). Indeed, Jacob and therefore Israel is symbolized by the flax; although we can « demonstrate » it, we will not give further explanation about it on this website.

The outside are the woolen hangings representing the eleven tribes of Esau (the twelfth, that of Amalech, is not shown because it is « erased »). Indeed, Esau and therefore Rome and Christianity is symbolized by wool; although we can « demonstrate » it, we will not give further explanation about it on this website.

So the horns represent, through the external hangings, the nations, this is in particular the reason why these were mentioned for the first time in Psalm twenty-two which initiated the second part of the night, the one that would gradually bring about the Jews into exile through the nations.

However, evoking these outer wool hangings is not sufficient because they only cover the horizon, other hangings cover the top of the tabernacle. They too are the outside (the « horns ») of the tent. But this generation marks the end of a time. Indeed, until now, monotheism had been seeded within the nations with a single doctrine (even if this gave birth to many « sects » and « heresies »): Christianity.

Hagar

The end of this uniqueness is initiated at this generation because it ends with the birth of Muhammad (570) who will give birth to Islam himself.

This advent of a new religion is in accordance with the promises of God to Abraham, in particular when this one must separate from Hagar following the rivalries between this one and Sarah:

  • And[17] Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, whom she had borne to Abraham, making merry.
  • And Sarah said to Abraham, « Drive out this handmaid and her son, for the son of this handmaid shall not inherit with my son, with Isaac. »
  • But the matter greatly displeased Abraham, concerning his son.
  • And God said to Abraham, « Be not displeased concerning the lad and concerning your handmaid; whatever Sarah tells you, hearken to her voice, for in Isaac will be called your seed.
  • But also the son of the handmaid I will make into a nation, because he is your seed. »

Promise confirmed to Hagar when she finds herself in despair in the desert:

  • And[18] she (Agar) went and sat down from afar, at about the distance of two bowshots, for she said, « Let me not see the child’s death. » And she sat from afar, and she raised her voice and wept.
  • And God heard the lad’s voice, and an angel of God called to Hagar from heaven, and said to her, « What is troubling you, Hagar? Fear not, for God has heard the lad’s voice in the place where he is.
  • Rise, pick up the lad and grasp your hand upon him, for I shall make him into a great nation. »

The ancestry of Muhammad

We can be interested in his lineage. Whether for Jews and Muslims, Muhammad is considered a descendant of Ishmael, son of Abraham and Hagar, Sarah’s maid.

Thus Tabari defines the genealogy of Mohammad, which is reminiscent of the genealogy of Jesus in the Gospels:

  • Mohammed[19], son of Abdallah, son of Abdul-Mottalib, son of Haschim, son of Abd-Manaf, son of Qoçavy, son of Kilab, son of Morra, son of Ka’b, son of Lowavy, son of Ghâlib, son of Fihr, son of Malik, son of Nadhr, son of Kināna, son of Khozama, son of Modrika, son of Elyās, son of Modhar, son of Nizār, son of Ma’add, son of Adnan, son of Odd, son of Odad, son of Homaïsa, son of Qaïdar, son of Ishmael, son of Abraham (then parentage to Adam).

Qaidar, the ancestor of Muhammad and son of Ishmael conforms to the description in Genesis after Abraham’s burial:

  • And[20] these are the names of the sons of Ishmael by their names, according to their births: the firstborn of Ishmael was Nebaioth, and Kedar (the ancestor of Muhammad according to the Muslim tradition), and Adbe’el and Mibsam,
  • And Mishma and Dumah and Massa,
  • Hadad and Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedmah.
  • These are the sons of Ishmael, and these are their names in their open cities and in their walled cities, twelve princes to their nations.

That is to say a perfect parallelism between the line resulting from Ishmael (twelve princes), from Esau (twelve also) and from Jacob (twelve tribes). If Jacob and Esau are an integral part of the make-up of the tabernacle, so is Ishmael.

In order to discern Ishmael’s « quota » in this edifice, one must look at the lineage of Muhammad which has just been recalled. Tabari focuses in particular on Modhar and Qoçavy.

For Modhar:

  • Modhar[21] had the nickname Hamrâ (of the red tent), which had the following origin:
  • Nizâr who had a great fortune, divided, while dying, his goods between his sons. He gave a red leather tent to Modhar, Rabî’a a black horse, Anmâr a black leather carpet, and Iyâd a slave. […] The diviner (Tabari cites a certain number of “trials” suffered by the sons of Nizar which precede this conclusion) said: Indicate to me exactly what your father gave to each of you and what he left . Our father, they said, left behind gold, silver, horses, sheep, carpets and vases of all kinds and in great numbers. They then recounted what their father had given to each of them. The soothsayer said: Leave to Modhar all that your father had in the matter of gold and camels; because these objects are red. Give the horses, slaves and black clothes to Rabî’a; white slaves, silver and white clothes in Iyâd, and rugs and sheep in Anmâr. The four brothers accepted this sentence and turned away.

For Qoçavy:

  • Qoçavy[21], having seized the government, gathered in Mecca the people of his family, his allies and the tribe of Ma’add, son of Adnan, made them dwell there and gave them the houses of Benî-Kozâ’a. When he had gathered them all in the city, he called them Qoraish, which in Arabic means meeting of men. This name had never been used before. Since then the Arabs designate Qoçavy by the name of Qoraïsch. (….)
  • Others claim that Qoraish is the name of a sea horse, which terrifies all that inhabit the sea, fish and other animals. As Qoçavy and his people had gained the upper hand over the Khozâ’a, they were called Qoraish by metaphor. Abdallah, son of Abbas, said on this subject the following verse:
    • Qoraish, which is (that animal) that inhabits the sea, named after the Qoraysh.
  • So Qoçavy exercised power, in Mecca, over the Qorayshites and over the others. […] The preeminence of the Qoraysh was recognized by all Arabs and has been so to this day.

The tabernacle

In the biblical account, for the construction of the Tabernacle, God appeals to the generosity of the Jews in the desert by listing the necessary components:

  • « The[22] Lord spoke to Moses saying:
  • « Speak to the children of Israel, and have them take for Me an offering; from every person whose heart inspires him to generosity, you shall take My offering.
  • And this is the offering that you shall take from them: gold, silver, and copper;
  • blue, purple, and crimson wool; linen and goat hair;
  • ram skins dyed red, tachash skins, and acacia wood;
  • oil for lighting, spices for the anointing oil and for the incense;
  • shoham stones and filling stones for the ephod and for the choshen.

If we limit ourselves to what mainly constitutes the tent itself: we have:

  • linen,
  • Goat hair,
  • Ram skins dyed red,
  • Tahach skins.

The linen fabrics constitute the part of Israel in the tabernacle, which is the central part. The goat hair fabrics constitute the part of Esau and by extension that of the Christian world, that is to say the external and lateral part of the tabernacle.

Remain the skins of ram dyed in red (« Modhar ») and the skins of Tahach (« Qoçavy ») which represent the part of Ishmael and by extension that of the Moslem world, that is to say as we will see it the external and high part of the tabernacle.

Before that, remember that the skin of « tahach » has puzzled all generations of traditional exegesis who have never been able to officially associate a known animal name with it. So Rashi gives the following meaning:

  • It’s[23] a kind of beast that only existed at that time and it had many colors, that’s why we translate multicolored (which can also mean) which rejoices and glorifies itself because of its colors.

Modern[24] people associate it with the manatee or the dugong. These two animals are the only representatives of the sirenians. These marine mammals are probably the origin of the myth of the mermaids.

They have the rare distinction of being herbivores (almost kosher! Some people do not hesitate to compare them to sea cows). They were once plentiful in the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. This interior makes compatible the fact that the children of Israel had such skins when they left Egypt and also that the Arabs of the Arabian Peninsula knew this animal.

The obvious connection with the legend associated with Qoraish makes it possible to associate both the rams’ skins dyed in red and the skins of Tahach with Ishmael and his descendants.

These two complementary « fabrics » are used in the Tent of Meeting for its cover:

  • « And[25] you shall make a covering for the tent of ram skins dyed red and a covering of tachash skins above.

What was executed:

  • And[26] he made a covering for the tent, of ram skins dyed red and a covering of tachash skins above.

The three directions of accomplishment

For everyone, there are three directions of fulfillment: oneself, the other, God. For man, the possibility of moving forward or backward in his own fulfillment, of going left or right in his fulfillment towards others, of rising or descending in his fulfillment towards God.

To be compared to a system of mathematical axes to define three-dimensional space:

  • Go forward or backward, the main axis, the x axis, self-fulfillment is similar to the x axis.
  • Go left or right, the secondary axis in the positions of a horizontal plane, ie the y axis, the accomplishment towards the other is similar to the y axis.
  • Rise or descend, the z axis. Fulfillment towards God is likened to the z axis.

The purpose of religions is to promote positive fulfillment and to restrain negative fulfillment as much as possible.

The doctrine of Christianity can be summed up as « Love your neighbor as yourself » are, as we have already explained, the dimensions X (yourself) and Y (the other, your neighbor) are the two earthly dimensions to the exclusion of the celestial dimension Z (God) which is the great absent from Christian doctrine.

To further illustrate the fact that the Gospels represent a kind of two-dimensional projection of the law of Moses, we can quote these few passages from Eric Edelmann:

  • The real[27] difficulty that arises is that, even if the teaching of Jesus is fundamentally of a mystical and spiritual order – and therefore universal and timeless – it is inserted in a specific context which cannot be ignored. This aspect is particularly evident, for example, with regard to the Law and the religious mentality which are attached to it. We cannot therefore neglect here the backdrop or “the living environment”, even if we must never forget that this is a horizontal and relative dimension and not the vertical and ultimate dimension [ …]
  • – In essence, however, the Torah is not just legislation; it is even par excellence the whole of the revelation of God, that is to say, if we maintain the term « law », of the laws which govern the spiritual world and the relation of man to God. […]
  • – The Hebrew word tôrâh literally means « direction to take » and comes from yârâh: « to show », « to throw », hence to show with the hand and, by extension, « indication ».

This missing dimension of Christianity is in fact the prerogative of the new monotheistic religion: Islam. Islam which can be summed up in the first verse of the Quran:

  • In[28] the Name of Allah,the All-beneficent, the All-merciful.

It is therefore natural that in addition to the exterior side hangings (X, Y dimensions), the upper exterior hangings (Z dimension) are associated with Ishmael whose descendants will spread Islam throughout the world.

These hangings which separate the heart of the tent of meeting and the sky protect it from the attractions of « other » skies and therefore from paganism, but are also an obstacle between God and his people.

This sums up what the Muslim influence will be in the land of Israel: on the one hand, it will preserve the sanctification of this land by protecting it from any idolatrous temptation; with more success than the Jewish people themselves who, being oriented to them in the three directions (X: oneself, Y: the other, Z: God) are more subject to the temptations and errors of this world.

But this will prevent the Jewish people from exercising the worship they owe to their God until today.

The birth of Islam which is announced by the birth of Muhammad at the end of this generation is the sign of the maturation of the nations which will now be organized between influence of East (Islam) and influence of Occident (Christianity).

It is in this world that the Jewish people will evolve the rest of the night.

Night during which the Jewish people will continue to suffer the caprices of the nations and pay the price in the image of the blood of the atonement sacrifices projected towards the horns of the altar, to the nations.

This is summarized by the end of the psalm of this generation:

(extract of the psalm 75 associated to this generation, verses 9 to 8 )

  • For a cup is in the hand of the Lord, and strong wine, a full mixture, and He pours out of this [cup], but all the wicked of the earth will drain and drink [it]. 
    • Nations can feel free to do as they please against the people of Israel who live within it, because apparently they go unpunished or even seem to benefit. This is a short-term view because God will end up demanding account for actions against his people.
  • And I shall recite forever; I shall sing [praises] to the God of Jacob.
  • And all the horns of the wicked I shall cut off; the horns of the righteous will be upraised.  
    • This is summarized in this last verse: the promise made to Jacob will be respected at the end of time and justice will be done to the nations to which his people will have been confronted. Those who have done well will be rewarded, those who have done wrong will be punished.

 


[1] John Julius Norwich / History of Byzantium / Chapter: “The Last Roman Emperor” (french reference: John Julius Norwich/Histoire de Byzance/Chapitre : « Le dernier empereur romain » (p. 104 et 105) )

[2] Yves Porter / The Iranians – History of a people / Chapter: « Khosrô 1st Anushiravân » (french reference : Yves Porter/Les Iraniens – Histoire d’un peuple/Chapitre : « Khosrô 1er Anushiravân » (p. 97-98) )

[3] Tehillim – Psalms – Chapter 22, verses 21 and 22

[4] TABARI “From Solomon to the fall of the Sassanids”, Chapter History of Dsoul-Qarnaïn and construction of the wall of Yâdjoudj and Mâdjoudj.

[5] Vayikra – Leviticus – Chapter 8, verse 15

[6] Vayikra – Leviticus – Chapter 9, verses 7 to 9 (see also verse 15)

[7] Vayikra – Leviticus – Chapter 16, verse 18

[8] Vayikra – Leviticus – Chapter 4, verses 6 and 7

[9] Vayikra – Leviticus – Chapter 4, verse 25 (see also verses 30 to 34)

[10] Vayikra – Leviticus – Chapter 1, verse 5

[11] Vayikra – Leviticus – Chapter 1, verses 10 and 11

[12] Vayikra – Leviticus – Chapter 1, verse 15

[13] Vayikra – Leviticus – Chapter 8, verse 19 (see also verse 24 (inauguration ram))

[14] Vayikra – Leviticus – Chapter 3, verse 2 (see also verses 8 and 13)

[15] Vayikra – Leviticus – Chapter 9, verse 18

[16] Vayikra – Leviticus – Chapter 5, verse 9

[17] Bereishit – Genesis – Chapter 21, verses 9 to 13

[18] Bereishit – Genesis – Chapter 21, verses 16 to 18

[19] TABARI / « The Chronicle – History of the prophets and kings » / Mohammed, seal of the prophets / Chapter: « Genealogy of the prophet »

[20] Bereishit – Genesis – Chapter 25, verses 13 to 15

[21] TABARI / “The Chronicle – History of the prophets and kings” / Mohammed, seal of the prophets / Chapter: “Genealogy of the prophet”

[22] Shemot – Exodus – Chapter 25, verses 1 to 7

[23] RACHI, commentary on Exodus, Chapter 25, verse 5. Rashi is based on the developments of the Babylonian Talmud / treatise: Shabbat / Page 28a.

[24] See the Larousse “Hebrew-French” dictionary by Marc M. Cohn.

[25] Shemot – Exodus – Chapter 26, verse 14

[26] Shemot – Exodus – Chapter 36, verse 19

[27] Quotes from « Jesus spoke Aramaic » by Eric Edelmann. Excerpts from the aptly named chapter « Considering the interests of others ». (frenc reference : « Jésus parlais araméen » de Eric Edelmann. Extraits issus du chapitre « Considérer l’intérêt de l’autre ».)

[28] THE QURAN – CHAPTER 1 – THE OPENING – AL-FĀTIḤAH ( الفاتحة )